Took everything apart again to drill out the bolt, and have lost my mobility. Several hours of drilling and 4 broken bits, I now know that one drills 6 seconds, cools 6 seconds. I have a hole that is less than 1/8 in deep. Nothing to do, but keep drilling, I suppose.
Although extracting the bolt will allow me to put the starter back in solving a little bit of the problem, it has now become apparent that the starter has again been altered, now that it is off the truck.
I took it off to drill, and when putting it back in and trying to start the truck, the neutral safety switch was activated (outside the starter). The solenoid clicks, but no noise on the starter (no whine). I used the battery cables to test the starter holding it and arcing it from the battery, and it started.
So, unless one is hearing the solenoid reverse click (toggle the wrong way), it’s the neutral safety switch. In this situation, without resolving the problem with the switch, it would be possible to rig something to arc it to get it to start. Access is difficult, and it isn’t a straight job (one cannot use a screwdriver, but needs a curved insulated object for the arc).
After determining this, I again went to sleep to wake up the next morning to yet another starter. This one doesn’t turn. I charged up the battery with a charger – it apparently takes only 50 or so amps to turn the starter when it is uncoupled from the engine, so if you can turn on the headlights, then you should be able to turn the starter off the engine. That said, I went ahead and fully charged the battery to its rated 600 amps. One arc almost fully depletes the charge. When the battery is fully charged, the bendix engages (or at least moves out) when you arc it, but it won’t turn.
So, I am probably looking at taking the starter apart. The shaft seemingly can rotate physically, so it is probably the motor itself – maybe an electrical problem. Reading a little on the net, I might just need to disassemble the solenoid and clean the oxidation off of the copper. It seems worth a shot.