Flowers 1.0

As the days warm up, the 2 windows to my room are open almost all the time, and the fan runs pretty continuously while I am there.  The hot water has been off for a while now.

I’ve had quite a bit of damage to the plants from caterpillars, so I have decided to do my first experiment.  Catch a caterpillar in the act, put it in a jar ventilated with screen or punctured aluminum foil, and then after allowing the caterpillar to sample all leaves, leave it inside with a vinegar-soaked leaf, a hand-soap soaked leaf, a coffee soaked leaf, and a lemon-soaked leaf, and a control, and watch to see the order in which the leaves are  consumed.  Still, I like caterpillars, they eventually turn into either butterflies or moths.  I don’t want to kill them, just deter them from eating my plants, and make them think weeds are tastier.

The exciting news this week-end is that my first morning glory appeared.

I took pictures like any proud parent, and set about writing a botany program.

I organized all my wildflower pictures into a directory named botany/botany pics on my device containing a new shell script program that I wrote named flowers.sh.  This program is very heavily based on the following pdf file:

www.uaf.edu/ces/districts/tanana/mg/manual/…/1-BotanyBasics.pdf

In fact, before using the program, I would read the chapter.  Then on the first run of the program, fill in the blanks while reviewing the course material.  Finally, take and time yourself on the quizzes.

The program can run entirely as a bash.script on any unix system I think by simply entering n to all of the questions except using quotes.  I use Lucid Puppy 5.25.  The way that it is currently set up to run on Lucid is with a directory called botany, that contains 2 files and 2 subdirectories:

The first file general_botany_facts.txt contains all of the references to the chapter.

The second file  environmental_quotes.txt contains references I have found on the web to environmental quotes.

The first subdirectory called botany_pics contains jpg pictures that you have taken of the local flora in your area.  In mine, because I am just starting to garden, although 80% of the pictures are wild flora, I consider anything that I have “domesticated and grown” fair game for a picture.  The picture files should be jpg and sequentially numbered like: 01 dandelion.jpg, 02 prickly_poppy.jpg, 03 turkish_cap.jpg …

The second subdirectory called local_flora_facts contains facts found on the internet regarding each species in the picture files.  These fact file should be named 01 dandelion.txt, 02 prickly_poppy.txt, 03 turkish_cap.txt …

For music, I created an itunes music media subdirectory called flower music.  I put links to the 4 seasons by Vivaldi there.

Finally, in order to run the program you will need random1.c and intdiv2float.c compiled and running in the same directory where you have the shell script.

random1.c can be found on this page:

https://livedoggb.wordpress.com/2012/03/05/a-bird-handel/

and intdiv2float.c from (it is called average.c there just rename it to intdiv2float.c when you copy it):

https://livedoggb.wordpress.com/2012/03/27/classical-retry-v-2-0/

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So, that’s kind of the nuts and bolts of getting it up and running.  What does the program actually do?

It enters a quiz mode, and times your answering of random questions based on the botany text.  If you get the answer right, it randomly displays a picture of a local flower, and then randomly displays a fact about that flower.  It also displays a random quote from high literature regarding the environment, and plays a 30 second section of Vivaldi’s 4 seasons while you look at the picture and read the quotes.  You then move on to the next question.

Sample output file sommaire.out looks like this for me using no pics, no music, no quotes … just the barebones unix programs.

You worked  16 minutes for an average of:  0.160000 minutes per question, and a sum of  100 questions.
The correct answers ( 88 ): , asexual, Opposite, fertilizer, Tunicate, Vegetative, pubescence, pistil, perennial, Tunicate, tendrils, maturation, Meristems, drought, shrub, germinate, taproot, maturation, organ, Rhizomes, cambium, bulbs, ovary, pubescence, tendrils, cambium, Xylem, style, perennial, summer, Cross, xylem, node, secondary, outside, elongation, bracts, elongation, roots, light, bracts, asexual, sessile, light, spiral, Leaf, bulbs, Rosulate, secondary, vascular, style, summer, axil, Leaf, hardening, dominance, hyphae, dicot, stamen, Fertilization, tendrils, taproot, Spurs, monocot, anther, blade, woody, internode, monocot, girdling, bulbs, sperm, self, tissues, axil, shoot, length, counter, dicot, fibrous, meristematic, Heartwood, fibrous, dicot, sperm, Opposite, twining, Dormant, ovules
The incorrect answers ( 12 ): , axillary, bracts, roots, taproot, Vesicular-arbuscular, Adventitious, tissues, Vesicular-arbuscular, palmate, xylem, petioles, flower
The database had  220 entries.
Your percentage:  0.880000

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OK. That’s what it does.  What is the benefit?

Hypothesis: memory impairment can have several origins.

In some cases, stimulating and exercising memory may help to form new synapses, stabilizing or reducing memory loss.

This program would be a nice addition to retirement communities, addiction recovery communities, hospitals through social work intervention, etc.

As a home-schooling aid it allows students to gather and organize information about the natural landscape surrounding them, developing their interest and respect for it.  In this way, the program can be unique for each environment.  It provides a nice reminder for people who cannot visit a site all year round, and might be homesick and want to capture memories of it.  Nice as a gift to a loved one who can’t get out much anymore.

In terms of younger students, it can act on a few levels:

1) memory

2) reading and recognizing words, filling in the blank

3) learning how to deal with unfamiliar words

4) transitioning between rapid highly focused work, and relaxation

5) supporting exploration, novelty and response to novelty (the randomness feature).

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So, here is the actual script.  Not as smooth as I would like it to be, I want to switch from xmessage to feh, and work on smoother transitions with options.

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#!/bin/bash
# flowers.sh v.1.1 a program submitted by livedoggb on 5/07/2012
# dependencies compiled random1.c, intdiv2float.c, botany directory containing a botany_pics subdirectory with jpg pictures of local flora numbered 01 dandelion.jpg 12 prickly poppy.jpg etc.
# itunes directory named flower music with songs that you want to use sequentially numbered 01 …, 02 …, 03 … etc.
# a local_flora_txt subdirectory within botany containing files named 01 dandelion.txt, 02 prickly_poppy.txt, etc.
# with the number corresponding to the line number of the verb in the text file.
# It also outputs a file sommaire.out that has the statistics of your session.
dir_path=”/mnt/sdb1″
dir_txt_path=$( echo $dir_path/botany/ )
pic_dir_path=$( echo $dir_txt_path/botany_pics )
if [ -e $dir_path/sommaire.out ]
then
rm $dir_path/sommaire.out
fi
#rm $dir_path/hyper-tense-files_used.out
sum_fautes=0
echo “Please wait for a few minutes while the system sets up the music database.”
if [ -e $dir_path/hyper-tense-flowers-time2.out ]
then
echo “The program has found a time file.”
echo “1. Use this file.”
echo “2. Make a new time file. Choose 2 if you have changed the music.”
echo “Please choose:  (If you aren´t sure, choose 2.  The default is 2.)”
read choice
else
choice=2
fi
if [ -e $choice ]
then
choice=”2″
fi
case “$choice” in
1)
echo “Using the old file.”
;;
2)
echo “Making another file.  This will take a few minutes.  Please be patient.”
echo “0” > $dir_path/hyper-tense-flowers-time2.out
mplayer -msglevel all=-1 -profile gnome-mplayer -ss 10 -endpos 1 -volume 0 /mnt/sda1/Documents\ and\ Settings/TEMP/My\ Documents/My\ Music/iTunes/iTunes\ Media/Music/flower\ music/*.* | tee temp.out | grep “^A: ” | sed -e ‘s/^A: .* of \([0-9]*\).* .*/\1/g’ >> $dir_path/hyper-tense-flowers-time2.out
;;
esac
time_array=($(cat $dir_path/hyper-tense-flowers-time2.out))
i=1
num_files=$(expr $(grep -c . $dir_path/hyper-tense-flowers-time2.out))

i=0
while [ $i -lt $num_files ]
do
echo “$i. ${time_array[$i]}”
i=$(( $i + 1 ))
done
num_files=$(( $num_files – 1 ))
echo “num_files=” $num_files
echo “Several options are possible.  Please choose.”
echo “1.  Quiz (interactive).”
read choice
echo  “With quotes? Choose y or n.  Default is n.”
read with_quotes
echo “Oral reading? Choose y or n. Default is n.”
read read_aloud
echo “With pictures? Choose y or n. Default is y.”
read show_pics
echo “With music? Choose y or n. Default is y.”
read with_music
if [ -e $read_aloud ]
then
read_aloud=”n”
fi
if [ -e $with_quotes ]
then
with_quotes=”n”
fi
if [ -e $show_pics ]
then
show_pics=”y”
fi
if [ -e $with_music ]
then
with_music=”y”
fi
case “$choice” in
2)
echo “Study/ housework mode.”
;;
1)
echo “Quiz mode.”
echo “All information derives from gen_botany_facts.txt in the folder botany.”
c=””
right=0
asked=0
rightverbs=””
wrongverbs=””
average=0
verb_guess=””
num_vfiles=$(expr $(ls -1  $pic_dir_path/*.jpg | grep -c . ))
hours_bgn=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\1/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
min_bgn=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\2/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
sec_bgn=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\3/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )

while [ -e $c ]
do
if [ -e $dir_txt_path/gen_botany_facts.txt ]
then
maxlinenum=$( grep -c . $dir_txt_path/gen_botany_facts.txt)
#maxlinenum=$(( $maxlinenum – 1  ))
quizfact=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $maxlinenum)
correctquizfact=$( echo “$quizfact”c)
omit_line=$( grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/gen_botany_facts.txt)
#      echo “random quiz line is:” $quizfact $correctquizfact
if [ “$omit_line” != “” ]
then
#echo “The verb is: ” $verb
echo “Random quiz line is:” $quizfact
testline=$( grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/gen_botany_facts.txt | sed -e “s/^.*QUESTION:\(.*\)/\1/” )
echo $testline
verb_guess=””
asked=$(( $asked + 1 ))
while [ -e $verb_guess ]
do
echo “Enter your answer (enter e to exit):”
read verb_guess
done
if [ “$verb_guess” == “e” ]
then
break
fi
echo_verb=$( grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/gen_botany_facts.txt | sed -e “s/^.*ANSWER:\(.*\) QUESTION:.*/\1/” )
if [ $verb_guess == $echo_verb ]
then
echo “Correct.”
right=$(( $right + 1 ))
average=$(( $right/$asked ))
rightverbs=$( echo $rightverbs, $echo_verb)
if [ $show_pics == “y” ]
then
random_verb_num=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_vfiles)
fn=$random_verb_num
#fn=1
echo “random_pic_num is:” $random_verb_num
verb=$(ls $pic_dir_path/$fn\ *.jpg | sed “s/^.*$fn \(.*\).jpg/\1/” )
echo $verb
viewnior $pic_dir_path/$fn\ *.jpg < /dev/null &
fn=02
if [ -e $dir_txt_path/local_flora_facts/$fn\ *.txt ]
then
num_facts=$( grep -c . $dir_txt_path/local_flora_facts/$fn\ *.txt )
echo “I am in this loop.” $num_facts
num_facts=$(( $num_facts – 1 ))
picked_fact=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_facts )
correctquote=$( echo “$picked_fact”c )
dfact=$( grep “^$correctquote:” $dir_txt_path/local_flora_facts/$fn\ *.txt | sed “s/^.*c://” )
xmessage -timeout 30 $dfact < /dev/null &
fi
fi
if [ $with_music == “y” ]
then
num_mus=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_files )
num_mus_fixed=$(echo $num_mus | sed -e “s/^0//”)
prob_time=$(( ${time_array[$num_mus_fixed]} – 20 ))
ssx=($(expr $($dir_path/random1 0 $prob_time)))

mplayer -msglevel all=-1 -profile gnome-mplayer -ss $ssx -endpos 30 -volume 200 /mnt/sda1/Documents\ and\ Settings/TEMP/My\ Documents/My\ Music/iTunes/iTunes\ Media/Music/flower\ music/$num_mus*.*
fi
if [ $with_quotes == “y” ]
then
num_quotes=$( grep -c . $dir_txt_path/environmental_quotes.txt )
picked_quote=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_quotes )
correctquote=$( echo “$picked_quote”c )
dquote=$( grep “^$correctquote:” $dir_txt_path/environmental_quotes.txt | sed “s/^.*c://”)
xmessage -timeout 30 $dquote < /dev/null &
fi
else
echo “No.  The correct answer is:” $echo_verb
wrongverbs=$( echo $wrongverbs, $echo_verb )
fi
if [ $read_aloud == “y” ]
then
repeat=”y”
if [ -e /mnt/sda1/Documents\ and\ Settings/TEMP/My\ Documents/My\ Music/aaenglish\ highlit/$verb$quizfact.* ]
then
while [ $repeat == “y” ]
do
mplayer -volume 80 /mnt/sda1/Documents\ and\ Settings/TEMP/My\ Documents/My\ Music/aaenglish\ highlit/$verb$quizfact.*
echo “Write the sentences that you heard on paper.  Repeat? (y or n. The default is n.)”
read repeat
if [ -e $repeat]
then
repeat=”n”
fi

done
echo
#$shighlit=$(grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$fn*.txt | sed -e “s/^.* SHIGHLIT:\(.*\)TRANSSHIGHLIT:.*/\1/”)
#$echo $shighlit
#$echo
#$echo “Count the number of mistakes in what you wrote. One point for every word.”
#$echo How many errors?
#$read fault_number
if [ -e $fault_number ]
then
fault_number=0
fi
sum_faults=$(( $sum_faults + $fault_number ))
fi
fi
#$trans_sent=$(grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$fn*.txt | sed -e “s/^.*ETSENT1:\(.*\)ETSENT2:.*/\1/”)
#
echo
#$shighlit=$(grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$fn*.txt | sed -e “s/^.* SHIGHLIT:\(.*\)TRANSSHIGHLIT:.*/\1/”)
#$echo $shighlit
#echo
#echo “Please finish by reading the above sentence out loud.”
#read
echo “The line number is:” $quizfact
#echo $testline | sed “s/.*(\(.*\)).*/\1/”
echo $testline | sed “s/\(.*[ |^]_\)_*_\(_.*\)/\1$echo_verb\2/”
#echo $trans_sent
aver_right=$( $dir_path/intdiv2float $right $asked | sed -e “s/\([0-9]*\…\).*/\1/” )
echo $right “/” $asked ” correct.  Batting average:” $aver_right “Dictation errors: ” $sum_faults
echo “Please wait…I’m looking for another question…”
fi
fi
done
hours_end=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\1/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
min_end=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\2/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
sec_end=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\3/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
hours_diff=$(( $hours_end – $hours_bgn ))
min_diff=$(( $min_end – $min_bgn ))
sec_diff=$(( $sec_end – $sec_bgn ))
midnight=12
if [ $hours_diff -lt 0 ]
then
hours_diff=$(( $(( $midnight – $hours_bgn )) + $hours_end ))
# fix hour change if it happens at midnight or noon,
fi
time_of_ans=$(( $hours_diff * 60 + $min_diff ))
aver_time=$( $dir_path/intdiv2float $time_of_ans $((asked – 1)) | sed -e “s/\([0-9]*\…\).*/\1/” )

echo “You worked ” $time_of_ans “minutes for an average of: ” $aver_time “minutes per question, and a sum of ” $(($asked – 1)) “questions.” | tee >>sommaire.out
echo “The correct answers (” $right “):” $rightverbs  | tee >>sommaire.out
wrong=$(( $asked – $right – 1 ))
echo “The incorrect answers (” $wrong “):” $wrongverbs | tee >>sommaire.out
num_entries=$(grep “^[0-9]*c:” $dir_txt_path/*.txt | grep -c .)
echo “The database had ” $num_entries “entries.” | tee >>sommaire.out
echo “Your percentage: ” $aver_right | tee >>sommaire.out
cat sommaire.out
echo “Life is a tree. You are a meristem.  How would you like to differentiate from here?”
echo “Choices are:”
echo “1. Painting a picture of a flower.”
echo “2. Yoga or prayer activity.”
echo “3. Nature walk with dogs and camera.”
echo “4. Gardening activity.”
echo “5. Relaxation or sleep.”
echo
echo “Enter a number, or enter R to have the computer randomly choose an activity.”
read choice
if [ $choice == “R” ]
then
comp_choice=$( $dir_path/random1 1 5 )
echo “You won the lottery! The random choice was: $comp_choice.  Enjoy your activity!”
#fi
else
echo “You chose $choice.  Enjoy your activity.”
fi
;;
3)
echo “Mode 3”

;;
esac

 

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The environmental_quotes.txt file in the directory botany

01c: I enter Shennongjia through Fangxian in the north.  Even now rumours are rife that there are Wild Men around these parts.  It is recorded in the late Qing Dynasty work “Annals of Yunyangfu” that in this forest running 800 li from north to south “all day long is the roaring of tigers and the screeching of apes”.  I am not here to carry out an investigation into Wild Men, but have come to see if this primitive forest still exists.  I am not mercilessly driven by some burning missionary zeal, it is simply because I have come down all the way from the high plateau and the huge mountains of the upper reaches of the Yangtze and it would be a pity to miss out seeing this mountain region of the middle reaches.  So not having a goal is a goal, the act of searching itself turns into a sort of goal, and the object of the search is irrelevent.  Moreover, life itself is without goals, and is simply travelling along like this. (Soul Mountain, p. 342, Gao Xingijian)
02c: Nature teaches more than she preaches. There are no sermons in stones. It is easier to get a spark out of a stone than a moral. (John Burroughs)
03c: Afoot and light-hearted, I take to the open road,  Healthy, free, the world before me, The long brown path before me, leading wherever I choose. (Walt Whitman, “Song of the Open Road”)
04c: Who didst establish the earth upon its foundations, that it should not be moved for ever and ever; Thou didst cover it with the deep as with a vesture; the waters stood above the mountains. At Thy rebuke they fled, at the voice of Thy thunder they hasted away– The mountains rose, the valleys sank down–unto the place which Thou hadst founded for them; Thou didst set a bound which they should not pass over, that they might not return to cover the earth. Who sendest forth springs into the valleys; they run between the mountains; They give drink to every beast of the field, the wild asses quench their thirst. Beside them dwell the fowl of the heaven, from among the branches they sing. Who waterest the mountains from Thine upper chambers; the earth is full of the fruit of Thy works. Who causeth the grass to spring up for the cattle, and herb for the service of man; to bring forth bread out of the earth, And wine that maketh glad the heart of man, making the face brighter than oil, and bread that stayeth man’s heart. The trees of the LORD have their fill, the cedars of Lebanon, which He hath planted; Wherein the birds make their nests; as for the stork, the fir-trees are her house. The high mountains are for the wild goats; the rocks are a refuge for the conies. Who appointedst the moon for seasons; the sun knoweth his going down. Thou makest darkness, and it is night, wherein all the beasts of the forest do creep forth. (Psalm 104)
05c: I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived. (Walden, Thoreau)
06c: Adopt the pace of nature: her secret is patience. (Ralph Waldo Emerson)
07c: The farther one gets into the wilderness, the greater is the attraction of its lonely freedom. (Theodore Roosevelt)
08c: I am glad I will not be young in a future without wilderness. (Aldo Leopold)
09c: The temple bell stops.  But the sound keeps coming – out of the flowers. (Basho, 17th century Buddhist poet)
10c: Today’s mighty oak is just yesterday’s nut that held its ground. (anonymous)
11c: He who is in harmony with Nature hits the mark without effort and apprehends the truth without thinking. (Confucius)
12c: Out through the fields and the woods And over the walls I have wended; I have climbed the hills of view And looked at the world, and descended; (Reluctance, Robert Frost)
13c: Humankind has not woven the web of life.  We are but one thread within it.  Whatever we do to the web, we do to ourselves.  All things are bound together.  All things connect.  (Chief Seattle, 1854)

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The general_botany_facts.txt file in the directory botany

01c: ANSWER: monocot QUESTION: One of the differences between a dicot and a _________ is that a dicot has two seed leaves, and when this type has only one.
02c: ANSWER: dicot QUESTION: In contrast to a monocot where xylem and phloem are paired in bundles dispersed through the stem, in a _________, xylem and phloem form rings inside the stem.
03c: ANSWER: xylem QUESTION: The _________ forms the inner ring in a dicot.
04c: ANSWER: vascular QUESTION: The __________ system of a plant is composed of xylem and phloem, the water, nutrient and food conducting tissues.
05c: ANSWER: monocot QUESTION: The floral parts of a __________ are usually in threes or multiples of three.
06c: ANSWER: dicot QUESTION: The floral parts of a __________ are usually in multiples of four or five.
07c: ANSWER: monocot QUESTION: The leaves of a ___________ are often parallel-veined, in contrast to other types which are usually net-veined.
08c: ANSWER: dicotyledonous QUESTION: A dicot is short for a ______________ plant.
09c: ANSWER: vascular QUESTION: Ferns and seed-producing plants fall into the category of ______________ plants.
10c: ANSWER: anther QUESTION: The pollen sac on a male flower is called an ____________.
11c: ANSWER: apex QUESTION: The tip of a shoot or root is called the _________.
12c: ANSWER: axil QUESTION: The location where a leaf joins a stem is called an __________.
13c: ANSWER: cambium QUESTION: The layer of growing tissue that separates the xylem and phloem and continuously produces new xylem and phloem cells is called the __________.
14c: ANSWER: ovary QUESTION: The part of a female flower where eggs are located is called the _____________.
15c: ANSWER: petiole QUESTION: The stalk that attaches a leaf to a stem is called the _____________.
16c: ANSWER: phloem QUESTION: The photosynthate-conducting tissue in the vascular system is called the ___________.
17c: ANSWER: photosynthesis QUESTION: The process in green plants of converting carbon dioxide and water into food (sugars and starches) using energy from sunlight is called _______________.
18c: ANSWER: pistil QUESTION: A __________ is the female flower part consisting of a stigma, style, and ovary.
19c: ANSWER: guard QUESTION: Epidermal cells that open and close to let water, oxygen and carbon dioxide pass through the stomata are called ______ cells.
20c: ANSWER: internode QUESTION: The space between nodes on a stem is called an __________________.
21c: ANSWER: epidermis QUESTION: The outermost layer of plant cells is called the _______________.
22c: ANSWER: mesophyll QUESTION: A leaf’s inner tissue, located between the upper and lower epidermis, contains the chloroplasts and other specialized cellular parts and is called the _____________.
23c: ANSWER: cuticle QUESTION: The __________ is a relatively impermeable surface layer on the epidermis of leaves and fruits.
24c: ANSWER: cotyledon QUESTION: The first leaf that appears on a seedling is called a ______________.  It is also called a seed leaf.
25c: ANSWER: turgor QUESTION: The cellular water pressure responsible for keeping cells firm is called __________.
26c: ANSWER: style QUESTION: The ________ is the part of the female flower that connects the stigma to the ovary.  Pollen travels down this to reach the ovary where fertilization occurs.
27c: ANSWER: stomata QUESTION: The _________ are tiny openings in the epidermis that allow water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide to pass into and out of a plant.
28c: ANSWER: cortex QUESTION: The cells that make up the primary tissue of the root and stem are called the _________.
29c: ANSWER: stamen QUESTION: The _______ is the male flower part, consisting of an anther and a supporting filament.
30c: ANSWER: energy QUESTION: Respiration is the process of converting sugars and startches into __________.
31c: ANSWER: Meristems QUESTION: _______  are specialized groups of cells that are a plant’s growing points.
32c: ANSWER: dominance QUESTION: The tendency of an apical bud to produce hormones that suppress growth of buds below it on the stem is called apical ___________.
33c: ANSWER: node QUESTION: An area on a stem where a leaf, stem, or flower bud is located is called a ________.
34c: ANSWER: light QUESTION: Chlorophyll is the green pigment in leaves that is responsible for trapping _______ energy from the sun.
35c: ANSWER: photosynthesis QUESTION: A specialized component of certain cells that contains chlorophyll and is responsible for ______________ is called a chloroplast.
36c: ANSWER: annual QUESTION: An __________, such as a marigold, completes its life cycle in one year.
37c: ANSWER: summer QUESTION: A __________ annual completes its life cycle during the spring and summer.  It germinates, grows, matures, blooms, produces seed, and dies during this period.
38c: ANSWER: winter QUESTION: A __________ annual completes its life cycle during the fall and winter. It germinates, grows, matures, blooms, produces seed, and dies during this period.
39c: ANSWER: biennial QUESTION: A _________ completes its life cycle in 2 years.  During the first year, it produces vegetative structures such as leaves and food storage organs.  It overwinters, and then the next year, produces flowers, fruit, and seeds, during its next season.
40c: ANSWER: bolting QUESTION: ___________  is when a biennial plant goes from seed germination to seed production in one year.
41c: ANSWER: biennials QUESTION: Parsley, swiss chard, sweet William, carrots, and beets are all ___________.
42c: ANSWER: drought QUESTION:  Bolting in biennials can be produced by extreme temperature variation or __________.
43c: ANSWER: Perennial QUESTION: ____________ plants live more than 2 years.
44c: ANSWER: perennial QUESTION: A delphinium is an example of a herbacious ___________: a plant with a soft nonwoody stem that generally dies back into the ground each winter, and produces new stems from its crowns the next spring.
45c: ANSWER: woody QUESTION: Trees and shrubs are examples of ________ perennials.
46c: ANSWER: totipotent QUESTION: Because plant cells are ____________, each cell retains all of the genetic information required to produce the entire plant: roots, stems, leaves, and flowers.
47c: ANSWER: vegetative QUESTION: Asexual or ___________ reproduction occurs because plant cells are totipotent. This is the reason houseplants can be shared via cuttings.
48c: ANSWER: tissues QUESTION: Plant __________ are organized groups of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function.
49c: ANSWER: Meristems QUESTION: ____________ are the sites of rapid, almost continuous cell division.
50c: ANSWER: hormones QUESTION: How meristems divide is controlled by a complex array of plant __________ and environmental conditions.  They can be manipulated to change plant growth patterns, flowering, branching, or vegetative growth.
51c: ANSWER: organs QUESTION: External plant structures such as leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, and seeds are known as plant __________.
52c: ANSWER: organ QUESTION: An ____ is an organized group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function.
53c: ANSWER: Sexual QUESTION: ________ reproductive parts produce seed.  They include flower buds, flowers, fruit and seeds.
54c: ANSWER: Vegetative QUESTION: __________ parts of some plants include roots, stems, shoots, nodes, buds and leaves.
55c: ANSWER: asexual QUESTION: Cuttings, budding, or grafting are ________ forms of reproduction that use vegetative parts of plants.
56c: ANSWER: Roots QUESTION: __________ are vegetative organs of plants that lack nodes and never bear leaves or flowers directly.
57c: ANSWER: root QUESTION: The principal function of a _______ is to absorb nutrients and moisture, anchor the plant in the soil, support the stem and store food.
58c: ANSWER: some QUESTION: Roots can be used for propagation in ___(all, some, or no)__ plants.
59c: ANSWER: meristematic QUESTION: The three major parts of a root are the ____________ zone, the zone of elongation, and the zone of maturation.
60c: ANSWER: elongation QUESTION: The three major parts of a root are the meristematic zone, the zone of __________, and the zone of maturation.
61c: ANSWER: maturation QUESTION: The three major parts of a root are the meristematic zone, the zone of elongation, and the zone of ____________.
62c: ANSWER: meristematic QUESTION: In the  ____________ zone at the tip of a root, the cells are rapidly dividing.
63c: ANSWER: elongation QUESTION: In the zone of __________ in the middle of a root, cells increase in size through food and water, pushing the root through the soil.
64c: ANSWER: maturation QUESTION: In the zone of ___________ at the top of the root just below the stem, cells differentiate to become epidermis, cortex, or vascular tissue.
65c: ANSWER: cap QUESTION: A root _______ is located at the tip of the root.  It consists of cells that are shed as the root grows, and it serves to protect the meristem.
66c: ANSWER: epidermal QUESTION: Root hairs are delicate, elongated _________ cells that occur in a small zone just behind the root’s growing tip.  They serve to increase the root’s absorbtive capacity.
67c: ANSWER: hairs QUESTION: Root ______ live only 1 to 2 days.
68c: ANSWER: symbiotic QUESTION: Many roots have naturally occurring ___________ relationships with certain fungi.
69c: ANSWER: Fungi QUESTION: __________ grow inside plant roots and in the surrounding soil helping to facilitate mineral uptake.
70c: ANSWER: hyphae QUESTION: The threadlike cells of the fungi called ________ grow through the soil increasing the area available for the absorption of food and nutrients.
71c: ANSWER: carbohydrates QUESTION: Plants provide _____________ through photosynthesis for the fungi.
72c: ANSWER: mycorrhizae QUESTION: The beneficial association between fungus and root is called _________________.
73c: ANSWER: Ectotrophic QUESTION: ____________ mycorrhizae do not penetrate the cells, but form a thick sheath of fungal hyphae around the roots, with some of the mycellium growing between the cortical cells.
74c: ANSWER: Vesicular-arbuscular QUESTION: ______________ mycorrhizae do not produce a fungal sheath around roots, but grow in clusters outside of the root and penetrate individual cells of the cortex.
75c: ANSWER: Some QUESTION: ____(All, Some, No)______ plants require mycorrhizae to survive.
76c: ANSWER: nodules QUESTION: Legumes and a few plants such as alder produce root __________, which contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria that can fix atmospheric nitrogen in a form that can be used by plants.
77c: ANSWER: nitrogen QUESTION: Legumes and a few plants such as alder produce root nodules, which contain bacteria that can fix atmospheric __________ in a form that can be used by plants.
78c: ANSWER: nitrogen QUESTION: Garden seeds such as peas, beans, and clover are innoculated with __________-fixing bacteria when planted.  Because inoculums are living organisms, they must be fresh and handled properly.
79c: ANSWER: primary QUESTION: There are 2 major types of roots: ___________ and lateral roots.
80c: ANSWER: lateral QUESTION: There are 2 major types of roots: primary and ___________ roots.
81c: ANSWER: tap QUESTION: A primary root is called a ____root if it continues to elongate downward, has limited secondary branching and becomes the central feature of the root system.
82c: ANSWER: tap QUESTION: Dandelions and carrots have ____roots.
83c: ANSWER: embryo QUESTION: A primary root originates at the lower end of a seedling’s __________.
84c: ANSWER: secondary QUESTION: A lateral, or ___________ root is side root that arises from another root.
85c: ANSWER: fibrous QUESTION: A _________ root system is formed if the primary root ceases to elongate and produces numerous lateral roots.
86c: ANSWER: fibrous QUESTION: Some plants, such as grasses, naturally produce a __________ root system.
87c: ANSWER: taproot QUESTION: Severing a plant’s __________ by undercutting it can encourage the plant to produce a fibrous root system.
88c: ANSWER: taproot QUESTION: Nursuries sometimes undercut the _________ on a tree that naturally produce one because trees with compact fibrous root systems transplant more successfully.
89c: ANSWER: fertilizer QUESTION: A band of __________ several inches to each side and slightly below newly planted seeds helps early growth of most row crops.
90c: ANSWER: feeder QUESTION: For most plants, the majority of the absorbing or _______ roots are located in the top 6-12 inches of soil.
91c: ANSWER: Cold QUESTION: ______ soils reduce deep root development.
92c: ANSWER: water QUESTION: Roots in _______-saturated soils do not grow well and may die due to lack of oxygen.
93c: ANSWER: oxygen QUESTION: Roots in water-saturated soils do not grow well and may die due to lack of ________.
94c: ANSWER: drained QUESTION: Roots penetrate deeper in loose, well-________ soil.
95c: ANSWER: Dense QUESTION: _________ or compacted soil layers can restrict or terminate root growth.
96c: ANSWER: insulation QUESTION: Container plants not only have a restricted area for root growth, but are also susceptible to cold damage because the limited amount of soil surrounding the roots reduces _______________.
97c: ANSWER: drip QUESTION: In addition to growing downward, roots grow laterally and often extend well beyond a plant’s _______ line.
98c: ANSWER: tuberous QUESTION: Sweet potatoes are swollen ___________ roots.
99c: ANSWER: taproots QUESTION: Carrots, beets, rutabaga, parsnips, turnips, and radishes are elongated _____________.
100c: ANSWER: vascular QUESTION: The __________ system inside the stem forms a continuous pathway from the root, through the stem, and finally to the leaves, transporting water and food.
101c: ANSWER: Xylem QUESTION: ________ tubes conduct water and dissolved minerals.
102c: ANSWER: Phloem QUESTION: _________ tubes carry food such as starches.
103c: ANSWER: cambium QUESTION: The _________ is a layer of meristematic tissue that continuously produces new xylem and phloem cells.  It is responsible for a stem’s increase in girth.
104c: ANSWER: line QUESTION: Xylem and phloem tissues on a grafted scion (top wood) and rootstock need to ________ up, if the graft is to take.
105c: ANSWER: girdling QUESTION: Careless weed trimming can strip the bark off a tree, injuriing the cambium and _______ the tree causing it to die.
106c: ANSWER: insects QUESTION: Stem boring ______ are attracted to cuts made by weed trimmers.
107c: ANSWER: bundles QUESTION: In a monocot, the xylem and phloem are paired in ________ dispersed throughout the stem.
108c: ANSWER: phloem QUESTION: The ________ forms the outer ring in a dicot, and eventually becomes part of the bark in mature woody stems.
109c: ANSWER: Xylem QUESTION: ________ forms the first inner ring inside the stem of a dicot.
110c: ANSWER: Sapwood QUESTION: __________ is newer xylem that is still conducting.
111c: ANSWER: Heartwood QUESTION: ___________ is older xylem that is crushed in the center of the stem and no longer conducting.  It is filled with waste materials like gums, resins, tannins, and oils.
112c: ANSWER: shoot QUESTION: A _______ is a young stem (1 year or less) with leaves.
113c: ANSWER: twig QUESTION: A ________ is a young stem (1 year or less) that is in the dormant winter stage (has no leaves).
114c: ANSWER: branch QUESTION: A _________ is a stem that is more than a year old, typically wiith lateral stems radiating from it.
115c: ANSWER: trunk QUESTION: A __________ is a woody plant’s main stem.
116c: ANSWER: pith QUESTION: The inner most core cylinder of a dicot is referred to as the ________.
117c: ANSWER: above QUESTION: When pruning a tree, one should cut just ______ but not too close to a node, to encourage the buds at that node to form new stems or leaves.
118c: ANSWER: length QUESTION: The _________ of an internode is determined by many factors:  genetics, fertilizers, lack of light, season, branching of stems, plant growth regulators.
119c: ANSWER: Stretch QUESTION: ___________ or etoliation occurs in seedlings started indoors or in houseplants.
120c: ANSWER: Rhizomes QUESTION: _____________, as well as tubers, corms, and bulbs, are examples of stems that grow below ground.
121c: ANSWER: stems QUESTION: All _______ must have buds or leaves.
122c: ANSWER: Crowns QUESTION: __________ (on strawberries, dandelions, and African violets) are compressed stems with leaves and flowers on short internodes.
123c: ANSWER: Spurs QUESTION: _______ are short, stubby side stems arising from a main stem, like the fruit-bearing stems on pear, apple, and cherry trees.
124c: ANSWER: Stolons QUESTION: _________ are fleshy or semiwoody, elongated, horizontal stems that often lie along the soil surface.
125c: ANSWER: stolons QUESTION: Strawberry runners are ___________ that have small leaves at the nodes.
126c: ANSWER: eye QUESTION: When growing potatoes from seed pieces, it is important that each piece contain at least one _____ and be at least 2 ounces or 2 1/2 inches in diameter so that there will be enough energy for growth.
127c: ANSWER: Rhizomes QUESTION: __________ resemble stolons because they grow horizontally from plant to plant.  Some like the iris are compressed and fleshy, while others like bluegrass are slender with elongated internodes.
128c: ANSWER: bulbs QUESTION: Tulips, lilies, and onions produce _______ which are shortened, compressed underground stems surrounded by fleshy scales (leaves) that envelop a central bud at the tip of the stem.
129c: ANSWER: bulb QUESTION: In late Auguest, one can cut a tulip or lily ______ in half and see all of the flower parts in miniature.
130c: ANSWER: leaves QUESTION: One should not remove _______ from lilies and other bulb producinig plants until after they have turned yellow, because they store food for the next year’s flowering.
131c: ANSWER: Tunicate QUESTION: ____________ bulbs (e.g. tulips and onions) have a thin, papery covering, which is actually a modified leaf.
132c: ANSWER: Nontunicate QUESTION: ____________ bulbs (e.g. lilies) lack a papery covering.
133c: ANSWER: Corms QUESTION: __________ are shaped like bulbs, but do not contain fleshy scales.  They are solid, swollen stems with dry, scale-liike leaves.  Gladiolus and crocuses produce them.
134c: ANSWER: tuberous QUESTION: Some plants (some begonias and cyclamen) produce a modified underground stem called a __________ stem.
135c: ANSWER: roots QUESTION: Some plants (dahlias and sweet potatoes) produce underground storage organs called tuberous _____________ that have neither nodes nor internodes.  They are often confused with bulbs and tubers.
136c: ANSWER: stem QUESTION: Aboveground _________ cuttings produce roots and eventually new plants, through vegetative plant propagation, if they contain nodes and internodes.
137c: ANSWER: tissues QUESTION: Belowground stems are good propagative ________: rhizomes can be divided, tubers cut into pieces, or small bublet or cormels removed from parents.
138c: ANSWER: stems QUESTION: In perennial plants, new herbaceous ________ develop from the crown (root-stem interface each year).
139c: ANSWER: xylem QUESTION: The sapwood is the light colored living ________ near the outside just under the bark of a tree.
140c: ANSWER: Canes QUESTION: _________ are stems (e.g. roses, blackberries, raspberry) with relatively large pith or central strength-giving tissues.  They usually live only 1 or 2 years.
141c: ANSWER: Fertilization QUESTION: ____________ is the union of a male sperm nucleus from a pollen grain with a female egg.
142c: ANSWER: ovule QUESTION: If fertilization is successful, the _________ develops into a seed.
143c: ANSWER: sperm QUESTION: When pollen reaches the ovules, it releases __________ and fertilization occurs.
144c: ANSWER: Pollination QUESTION: _____________ does not guarantee that fertilization will occur.  Moisture and temperature are also factors.
145c: ANSWER: Cross QUESTION: ________-fertilization combines genetic material from two similar parent plants from the same species.
146c: ANSWER: genetic QUESTION: Seeds resulting from cross-fertilization have a broader _________ base, perhaps enabling the population to survive under a wider range of environmental conditions.
147c: ANSWER: self QUESTION: Cross-pollinated plants are usually more successful than _______-pollinated plants.
148c: ANSWER: stigma QUESTION: A chemical in the _________ stimilates pollen to grow a long tube down the style to the ovules inside the ovary.
149c: ANSWER: pollen QUESTION: The stigma recognizes ________, which has a chemical specific to that type of plant.
150c: ANSWER: germinate QUESTION: The wrong pollen will not ___________ because it lacks the chemical signature to be recognized by the stigma.
151c: ANSWER: anther QUESTION: Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an _______ to a stigma, either by wind or pollinators.
152c: ANSWER: pollinated QUESTION: Species ____________ by insects, animals, or birds often have brightly colored or patterned flowers that contain fragrance or nectar.
153c: ANSWER: nectar QUESTION: While searching for ___________, pollinators transfer pollen from flower to flower, either on the same plant or on different plants.
154c: ANSWER: bees QUESTION: Zucchini flowers, which are normally pollinated by _____, may have to be hand pollinated in cool wet summers.
155c: ANSWER: ovules QUESTION: Fruit consists of fertilized, mature ______ (seeds) plus the ovary wall.
156c: ANSWER: outside QUESTION: In some fruit like corn and strawberries, seeds are situated on the __________ of fruit tissue.
157c: ANSWER: seed QUESTION: The only part of the fruit that contains genes from both the male and female flowers is the ________.
158c: ANSWER: Simple QUESTION: ________ fruit like cherries, peaches, pears, apples, squash, cucumbers, eggplants, and tomatoes develop from a single ovary.
159c: ANSWER: flower QUESTION: Although generally referred to as a vegetable, tomatoes technically are a fruit because they develop from a __________.
160c: ANSWER: dry QUESTION: Examples of ____ simple fruit are peanuts, poppies, maples, and walnuts.
161c: ANSWER: aggregate QUESTION: An ___________ fruit (strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries) develops from a single flower with many ovaries.
162c: ANSWER: pistils QUESTION: In aggregate fruit, the flower is a simple flower with one corolla, one calyx and one stem, but it has many _________ or ovaries.
163c: ANSWER: ovary QUESTION: In aggregate fruit, each ______ must be fertilized seperately.  If some ovules are not pollinated successfully, the fruit will be misshapen.
164c: ANSWER: Multiple QUESTION: ____________ fruits (ex. pineapples and figs) are derived from a tight cluster of separate, independent flowers borne on a single structure.  Each flower has its own calyx and corolla.
165c: ANSWER: fruit QUESTION: A ripened mature ovary that contains seed is a ________.
166c: ANSWER: shrub QUESTION: In contrast to trees that have one main trunk usually greater than 12 feet tall when mature, a ________ has several main stems, less than 12 feet tall when mature.
167c: ANSWER: vine QUESTION: A _________ is a plant with long, trailing stems.  Some grow along the ground, while others require support.
168c: ANSWER: twining QUESTION: Honeysuckle and hops are example of _________ vines that circle clockwise.
169c: ANSWER: counter QUESTION: Pole beans are examples of twining vines that circle _______clockwise.
170c: ANSWER: aerial QUESTION: Climbing vines like English ivy and poison ivy are supported by __________ roots.
171c: ANSWER: tendrils QUESTION: Climbing vines such as cucumbers, gourds, grapes, and passionflowers use slender _______ to encircle a supporting object.
172c: ANSWER: adhesive QUESTION: Some climbing vines like Virginia and Japanese creepers have tendrils with ___________ tips.
173c: ANSWER: stems QUESTION: Asparagus and kohlrabi are enlarged, succulent ________.
174c: ANSWER: rhizome QUESTION: A ginger “root” is actually a _______ or underground stem.
175c: ANSWER: underground QUESTION: The edible tuber of a potato and the Jerusalem artichoke are both ____________ stems.
176c: ANSWER: bud QUESTION: A ______ is an undeveloped shoot from which leaves or flowers grow.
177c: ANSWER: scales QUESTION: The buds of temperate-zone trees and shrubs typically develop a protective outer layer of small leathery _________.
178c: ANSWER: rest QUESTION: Buds of many plants require exposure to a certain number of days (called a _______ period) below a critical temperature before resuming growth in the spring.
179c: ANSWER: Dormant QUESTION: Rest periods can vary among plants from Forsythia which grows at the first sign of warm weather, to peaches that may require 700 to 1000 hours below 45F.  ___________ buds can withstand very low temperature, but may be susceptible to damage by cold temperature or frost after the rest period.
180c: ANSWER: Leaf QUESTION: _________ buds are often less plump and more pointed than flower buds.
181c: ANSWER: embryonic QUESTION: A leaf bud is composed of a short stem with __________ leaves.
182c: ANSWER: embryonic QUESTION: A flower bud is composed of a short stem with ____________ flower parts.
183c: ANSWER: terminal QUESTION: A ___________ bud is located at the apex of a stem.
184c: ANSWER: lateral QUESTION: A ____________ bud is located on the side of a stem arising in the axil where the petiole meets the stem.
185c: ANSWER: Adventitious QUESTION: ___________ buds may develop from roots, a stem initernode, the edge of a leafe blade or callus tissue at the cut end of a stem or root.  The allow stem, leaf, and root cuttinigs to develop into entirely new plants.
186c: ANSWER: buds QUESTION: Cabbage and head lettuce are examples of unusually large terminal _____.
187c: ANSWER: axillary QUESTION: Succulent ________ buds are the edible part of Brussels sprouts.
188c: ANSWER: flower QUESTION: Broccoli and cauliflower are important horticultural plants with edible ________ buds.
189c: ANSWER: absorb QUESTION: The principal function of leaves is to __________ sunlight needed to manufacture plant sugars through a process called photosynthesis.
190c: ANSWER: sessile QUESTION: A __________ or stalkless leaf blade lacks a petiole.
191c: ANSWER: petioles QUESTION: Celery and rhubarb stalks are examples of edible leaf __________.
192c: ANSWER: blade QUESTION: The _________ is the expanded thin structure on either side of a leaf midrib.
193c: ANSWER: pubescence QUESTION: Some leaves, such as African violets, have hairs (_________________) which are extensions of the epidermal cells that make the leaves feel like velvet.
194c: ANSWER: cutin QUESTION: The cuticle produces a waxy layer called ________ which protects the leaf from dehydration and disease.  It increases with light intensity.
195c: ANSWER: hardening QUESTION: The gradual exposure to sunlight over a period of a few weeks when moving plants from shade into full sunlight is called ____________ off.
196c: ANSWER: water QUESTION: Hardening off allows the cutin layer to build up to protect leaves from rapid ________ loss or sunscald.
197c: ANSWER: stomata QUESTION: In most species, the majority of _________ are located on the undersides of leaves, where guard cells regulate the passage of water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide into and out of the leaf.
198c: ANSWER: air QUESTION: The spongy mesophyll, in contrast to the more dense upper palisade mesophyll contains lots of _____ space.
199c: ANSWER: Spines QUESTION: _________ and tendrils such as those on barberry and pea plants are leaves that protect the plant, and help to support it.
200c: ANSWER: bracts QUESTION: The showy structures on dogwoods and poinsettias are _______, a kind of leaf, not petals.
201c: ANSWER: Opposite QUESTION: ___________ leaves are positioned across the stem from each other, with 2 leaves at each node.
202c: ANSWER: spiral QUESTION: Alternate or ___________ leaves are arranged in alternate steps along the stem, with only one leaf at each node.
203c: ANSWER: Whorled QUESTION: __________ leaves are arranged in circles along the stem.
204c: ANSWER: Rosulate QUESTION: __________ leaves are arranged in a rosette around a stem with extremely short nodes.
205c: ANSWER: Compound QUESTION: ___________ leaves are composed of several separate leaflets arising from the same petiole.
206c: ANSWER: pinnate QUESTION: In _______ venation of a leaf (apples, cherries, and peaches), the veins extend laterally from the midrib to the edge.
207c: ANSWER: palmate QUESTION: In _________ venation of a leaf (grapes and maples), the principal veins extend outward, like the ribs of a fan from the base of the leaf blade.

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sample txt file called 01 spiderwort.txt in the subdirectory local flora facts

Spiderwort.txt
01c: Spiderwort belongs to the genus Tradescantia.
02c: Spiderwort may cause an allergic reaction in cats and dogs. (Wikipedia – Spiderwort)
03c: Flowers from the family Commelinaceae can be bisexual (each flower contains male and female organs) or andromonoecious (bisexual and male flowers occur on the same plant).  T. virginiana appears to be bisexual.
04c: The Virginia Spiderwort belongs to the family Commelinaceae, the dayflower family.  This family does not produce nectar. (Wikipedia – Commelinaceae)
05c: Unlike most wildflowers of the United States and Canada (other than orchids and lilies) spiderworts are monocots. (Wikipedia – Spiderwort)
06c: The virginia spiderwort T. virginiana is native to the eastern United States from Maine to Alabama, and Canada in southern Ontario. (Wikipedia – Spiderwort)
07c: Spiderwort has a mucilaginous and clear sap. (Wikipedia – spiderwort)
08c: A number of species of spiderwort close when the sun shines on the flowers. (Wikipedia – spiderwort)
09c: The cells of the stamen hairs of some Tradescantia (Spiderwort) are colored blue, but when exposed to sources of ionizing radiation such as gamma rays, the cells mutate and change color to pink; they are one of the few tissues known to serve as an effective bioassay  for ambient radiation levels (Ichikawa, Sadao (1972). “Somatic Mutatiion Rate in Tradescantia Stamen Hairs at Low Radiation Levels: Finding of Low Doubling Doses of Mutations”. The Japanese Journal of Genetics 47 (6): 411–421. http://www.journalarchive.jst.go.jp/english/jnlabstract_en.php?cdjournal=ggs1921&cdvol=47&noissue=6&startpage=411.)

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