The New Flowers Program

This version has 3 modes including a nice slide show mode, implements color, takes out the data files, and has the option of using the Houston field data that I have collected, or local data collected and stored by the user, and automatically closes both the picture and music after 30 seconds.  I also finally figured out how to set the music file directory for mplayer, so that the directory can be set once.  I added another 150 questions.  It’s relatively polished, for me.  Almost ready for Father’s Day:

The code:

#!/bin/bash
# flowers.sh v.1.2 a program submitted by livedoggb on 6/12/2012
# dependencies compiled random1.c, intdiv2float.c, botany directory containing a botany_Houston_pics subdirectory with jpg pictures of local flora numbered 01 dandelion.jpg 12 prickly poppy.jpg etc. and another botany_own_pics subdirectory with jpg pics similarly labeled.  These are pics that you take and put in this subdirectory
# itunes directory named Houston flower music with songs that you want to use sequentially numbered 01 …, 02 …, 03 … etc. (Verdi 4 seasons), and another itunes directory named own flower music similarly numbered with whatever music you want for your own music
# a local_flora_txt subdirectory within botany containing files named 01 dandelion.txt, 02 prickly_poppy.txt, etc.
# with the number corresponding to the line number of the verb in the text file.
# It also outputs a file sommaire.out that has the statistics of your session.
dir_path=”/mnt/sdb1″
dir_txt_path=$( echo $dir_path/botany/ )
pic_dir_path=$( echo $dir_txt_path/botany_Houston_pics )
mus_dir_path=$( echo $dir_txt_path/botany_Houston_mus )
if [ -e $dir_path/sommaire.out ]
then
rm $dir_path/sommaire.out
fi

function set_path {
echo
echo “1.  Use Houston pictures and Verdi’s 4 Seasons.”
echo “2.  Use your own pictures and music.”
echo
echo “Please choose an option.”
read pic_set
case $pic_set in
1)
pic_dir_path=$( echo $dir_txt_path/botany_Houston_pics )
mus_dir_path=$( echo /mnt/sda1/Documents\ and\ Settings/TEMP/My\ Documents/My\ Music/iTunes/iTunes\ Media/Music/Houston\ flower\ music )
;;
2)
pic_dir_path=$( echo $dir_txt_path/botany_own_pics )
mus_dir_path=$( echo /mnt/sda1/Documents\ and\ Settings/TEMP/My\ Documents/My\ Music/iTunes/iTunes\ Media/Music/own\ flower\ music )
;;
esac
return
}

function trim_line {
i=1
echo
#num_words=$(gawk ‘{ sum += $1 }; END { print sum }’ testline.out)
words_left=”c”
while [ “$words_left” != “” ]
do
j=$(( $i + 7 ))
words_left=$( echo $line | cut -d’ ‘ -f$i-$j )
echo $words_left
i=$(( $j + 1 ))
done
return
}

function echo_in_color_br_sentence {
part1=$( echo $testline | sed “s/\(.*_\)_*_\(_.*\)/\1/” )
part2=$( echo $testline | sed “s/\(.*_\)_*_\(_.*\)/$echo_verb/” )
part3=$( echo $testline | sed “s/\(.*_\)_*_\(_.*\)/\2/” )
#”blue”
echo -n -e ‘\E[47;34m'”33[1m$part133[0m”
#”red”
echo -n -e ‘\E[47;31m'”33[1m$part233[0m”
#”blue”
echo -e ‘\E[47;34m'”33[1m$part333[0m”
tput sgr0
return
}

#rm $dir_path/hyper-tense-files_used.out
sum_fautes=0
echo “Please wait for a few minutes while the system sets up the music database.”
if [ -e $dir_path/hyper-tense-flowers-time2.out ]
then
echo “The program has found a time file.”
echo “1. Use this file.”
echo “2. Make a new time file. Choose 2 if you have changed the music.”
echo “Please choose:  (If you aren´t sure, choose 2.  The default is 2.)”
read choice
else
choice=2
fi
if [ -e $choice ]
then
choice=”2″
fi
case “$choice” in
1)
echo “Using the old file.”
;;
2)
echo “Making another file.  This will take a few minutes.  Please be patient.”
echo “0” > $dir_path/hyper-tense-flowers-time2.out
mplayer -msglevel all=-1 -profile gnome-mplayer -ss 10 -endpos 1 -volume 0 /mnt/sda1/Documents\ and\ Settings/TEMP/My\ Documents/My\ Music/iTunes/iTunes\ Media/Music/flower\ music/*.* | tee temp.out | grep “^A: ” | sed -e ‘s/^A: .* of \([0-9]*\).* .*/\1/g’ >> $dir_path/hyper-tense-flowers-time2.out
;;
esac
time_array=($(cat $dir_path/hyper-tense-flowers-time2.out))
i=1
num_files=$(expr $(grep -c . $dir_path/hyper-tense-flowers-time2.out))

i=0
while [ $i -lt $num_files ]
do
echo “$i. ${time_array[$i]}”
i=$(( $i + 1 ))
done
num_files=$(( $num_files – 1 ))
echo “num_files=” $num_files
echo “Several options are possible.  Please choose.”
echo
echo “1. Slideshow”
echo “2. Instruction”
echo “3. Quiz (interactive).”
echo
echo -n “Please choose:”
read choice
#echo  “With quotes? Choose y or n.  Default is n.”
#read with_quotes
#echo “Oral reading? Choose y or n. Default is n.”
#read read_aloud
#echo “With pictures? Choose y or n. Default is y.”
#read show_pics
#echo “With music? Choose y or n. Default is y.”
#read with_music
with_quotes=”n”
read_aloud=”n”
show_pics=”y”
with_music=”y”
more_local_info=”n”
if [ -e $read_aloud ]
then
read_aloud=”n”
fi
if [ -e $with_quotes ]
then
with_quotes=”n”
fi
if [ -e $show_pics ]
then
show_pics=”y”
fi
if [ -e $with_music ]
then
with_music=”y”
fi
case “$choice” in
1)
echo “Slideshow mode.”
set_path
viewnior –slideshow $pic_dir_path/01\ *.jpg < /dev/null &
mplayer -msglevel all=-1 -profile gnome-mplayer -volume 200 “$mus_dir_path”/*.*
;;
2)
echo “Instruction mode.”
set_path
echo “All information derives from gen_botany_facts.txt in the folder botany.”
c=””
right=0
asked=0
rightverbs=””
wrongverbs=””
average=0
verb_guess=””
num_vfiles=$(expr $(ls -1  $pic_dir_path/*.jpg | grep -c . ))
echo “num_vfiles=” $num_vfiles
hours_bgn=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\1/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
min_bgn=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\2/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
sec_bgn=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\3/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )

while [ -e $c ]
do
if [ -e $dir_txt_path/gen_botany_facts.txt ]
then
maxlinenum=$( grep -c . $dir_txt_path/gen_botany_facts.txt)
#maxlinenum=$(( $maxlinenum – 1  ))
quizfact=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $maxlinenum)
correctquizfact=$( echo “$quizfact”c)
omit_line=$( grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/gen_botany_facts.txt)
#      echo “random quiz line is:” $quizfact $correctquizfact
if [ “$omit_line” != “” ]
then
#echo “The verb is: ” $verb
echo “Random quiz line is:” $quizfact

testline=$( grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/gen_botany_facts.txt | sed -e “s/^.*QUESTION:\(.*\)/\1/” )
line=$testline
echo_verb=$( grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/gen_botany_facts.txt | sed -e “s/^.*ANSWER:\(.*\) QUESTION:.*/\1/” )
echo_in_color_br_sentence

asked=$(( $asked + 1 ))
echo “Press enter to continue (enter e to exit):”
read verb_guess
if [ “$verb_guess” == “e” ]
then
break
fi
verb_guess=$echo_verb
if [ $verb_guess == $echo_verb ]
then
echo “Correct.”
right=$(( $right + 1 ))
average=$(( $right/$asked ))
rightverbs=$( echo $rightverbs, $echo_verb)
if [ $show_pics == “y” ]
then
random_verb_num=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_vfiles)
fn=$random_verb_num
#fn=1
echo “random_pic_num is:” $random_verb_num
verb=$(ls $pic_dir_path/$fn\ *.jpg | sed “s/^.*$fn \(.*\).jpg/\1/” )
echo $verb
mypid=$$
viewnior $pic_dir_path/$fn\ *.jpg < /dev/null &
cpid=$!
if [ $more_local_info == “y” ]
then
random_verb_num=$( $dir_path/random1 1 5)
echo “random verb num is ” $random_verb_num
fn=$random_verb_num
if [ -e $dir_txt_path/local_flora_facts/$fn\ *.txt ]
then
num_facts=$( grep -c . $dir_txt_path/local_flora_facts/$fn\ *.txt )
echo “I am in this loop.” $num_facts
num_facts=$(( $num_facts – 1 ))
picked_fact=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_facts )
correctquote=$( echo “$picked_fact”c )
dfact=$( grep “^$correctquote:” $dir_txt_path/local_flora_facts/$fn\ *.txt | sed “s/^.*c://” )
xmessage -timeout 30 $dfact < /dev/null &
fi
fi
fi
if [ $with_music == “y” ]
then
num_mus=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_files )
num_mus_fixed=$(echo $num_mus | sed -e “s/^0//”)
prob_time=$(( ${time_array[$num_mus_fixed]} – 20 ))
ssx=($(expr $($dir_path/random1 0 $prob_time)))

mplayer -msglevel all=-1 -profile gnome-mplayer -ss $ssx -endpos 30 -volume 200 “$mus_dir_path”/$num_mus*.*
fi
kill -s SIGTERM $cpid
if [ $with_quotes == “y” ]
then
num_quotes=$( grep -c . $dir_txt_path/environmental_quotes.txt )
picked_quote=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_quotes )
correctquote=$( echo “$picked_quote”c )
dquote=$( grep “^$correctquote:” $dir_txt_path/environmental_quotes.txt | sed “s/^.*c://”)
xmessage -timeout 30 $dquote < /dev/null &
fi
else
echo “No.  The correct answer is:” $echo_verb
wrongverbs=$( echo $wrongverbs, $echo_verb )
fi
if [ $read_aloud == “y” ]
then
repeat=”y”
if [ -e /mnt/sda1/Documents\ and\ Settings/TEMP/My\ Documents/My\ Music/aaenglish\ highlit/$verb$quizfact.* ]
then
while [ $repeat == “y” ]
do
mplayer -volume 80 /mnt/sda1/Documents\ and\ Settings/TEMP/My\ Documents/My\ Music/aaenglish\ highlit/$verb$quizfact.*
echo “Write the sentences that you heard on paper.  Repeat? (y or n. The default is n.)”
read repeat
if [ -e $repeat]
then
repeat=”n”
fi

done
echo
#$shighlit=$(grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$fn*.txt | sed -e “s/^.* SHIGHLIT:\(.*\)TRANSSHIGHLIT:.*/\1/”)
#$echo $shighlit
#$echo
#$echo “Count the number of mistakes in what you wrote. One point for every word.”
#$echo How many errors?
#$read fault_number
if [ -e $fault_number ]
then
fault_number=0
fi
sum_faults=$(( $sum_faults + $fault_number ))
fi
fi
#$trans_sent=$(grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$fn*.txt | sed -e “s/^.*ETSENT1:\(.*\)ETSENT2:.*/\1/”)
#
echo
#$shighlit=$(grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$fn*.txt | sed -e “s/^.* SHIGHLIT:\(.*\)TRANSSHIGHLIT:.*/\1/”)
#$echo $shighlit
#echo
#echo “Please finish by reading the above sentence out loud.”
#read
echo “The line number is:” $quizfact
#echo $testline | sed “s/.*(\(.*\)).*/\1/”
#                echo $testline | sed “s/\(.*[ |^]_\)_*_\(_.*\)/\1$echo_verb\2/”
#                echo $testline | sed “s/\(.*_\)_*_\(_.*\)/\1$echo_verb\2/”
#                echo_in_color_br_sentence
#echo $trans_sent
aver_right=$( $dir_path/intdiv2float $right $asked | sed -e “s/\([0-9]*\…\).*/\1/” )
echo $right “/” $asked ” correct.  Batting average:” $aver_right “Dictation errors: ” $sum_faults
echo “Please wait…I’m looking for another question…”
fi
fi
done
hours_end=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\1/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
min_end=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\2/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
sec_end=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\3/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
hours_diff=$(( $hours_end – $hours_bgn ))
min_diff=$(( $min_end – $min_bgn ))
sec_diff=$(( $sec_end – $sec_bgn ))
midnight=12
if [ $hours_diff -lt 0 ]
then
hours_diff=$(( $(( $midnight – $hours_bgn )) + $hours_end ))
# fix hour change if it happens at midnight or noon,
fi
time_of_ans=$(( $hours_diff * 60 + $min_diff ))
aver_time=$( $dir_path/intdiv2float $time_of_ans $((asked – 1)) | sed -e “s/\([0-9]*\…\).*/\1/” )

echo “You worked ” $time_of_ans “minutes for an average of: ” $aver_time “minutes per question, and a sum of ” $(($asked – 1)) “questions.” | tee >>sommaire.out
echo “The correct answers (” $right “):” $rightverbs  | tee >>sommaire.out
wrong=$(( $asked – $right – 1 ))
echo “The incorrect answers (” $wrong “):” $wrongverbs | tee >>sommaire.out
num_entries=$(grep “^[0-9]*c:” $dir_txt_path/*.txt | grep -c .)
echo “The database had ” $num_entries “entries.” | tee >>sommaire.out
echo “Your percentage: ” $aver_right | tee >>sommaire.out
cat sommaire.out
echo “Life is a tree. You are a meristem.  How would you like to differentiate from here?”
echo “Choices are:”
echo “1. Painting a picture of a flower.”
echo “2. Yoga or prayer activity.”
echo “3. Nature walk with dogs and camera.”
echo “4. Gardening activity.”
echo “5. Relaxation or sleep.”
echo
echo “Enter a number, or enter R to have the computer randomly choose an activity.”
read choice
if [ $choice == “R” ]
then
comp_choice=$( $dir_path/random1 1 5 )
echo “You won the lottery! The random choice was: $comp_choice.  Enjoy your activity!”
#fi
else
echo “You chose $choice.  Enjoy your activity.”
fi
;;
3)
echo “Quiz mode.”
set_path
echo “All information derives from gen_botany_facts.txt in the folder botany.”
c=””
right=0
asked=0
rightverbs=””
wrongverbs=””
average=0
verb_guess=””
num_vfiles=$(expr $(ls -1  $pic_dir_path/*.jpg | grep -c . ))
echo “num_vfiles=” $num_vfiles
hours_bgn=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\1/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
min_bgn=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\2/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
sec_bgn=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\3/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )

while [ -e $c ]
do
if [ -e $dir_txt_path/gen_botany_facts.txt ]
then
maxlinenum=$( grep -c . $dir_txt_path/gen_botany_facts.txt)
#maxlinenum=$(( $maxlinenum – 1  ))
quizfact=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $maxlinenum)
correctquizfact=$( echo “$quizfact”c)
omit_line=$( grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/gen_botany_facts.txt)
#      echo “random quiz line is:” $quizfact $correctquizfact
if [ “$omit_line” != “” ]
then
#echo “The verb is: ” $verb
echo “Random quiz line is:” $quizfact

testline=$( grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/gen_botany_facts.txt | sed -e “s/^.*QUESTION:\(.*\)/\1/” )
line=$testline
trim_line
verb_guess=””
asked=$(( $asked + 1 ))
while [ -e $verb_guess ]
do
echo “Enter your answer (enter e to exit):”
read verb_guess
done
if [ “$verb_guess” == “e” ]
then
break
fi
echo_verb=$( grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/gen_botany_facts.txt | sed -e “s/^.*ANSWER:\(.*\) QUESTION:.*/\1/” )
if [ $verb_guess == $echo_verb ]
then
echo “Correct.”
right=$(( $right + 1 ))
average=$(( $right/$asked ))
rightverbs=$( echo $rightverbs, $echo_verb)
if [ $show_pics == “y” ]
then
random_verb_num=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_vfiles)
fn=$random_verb_num
#fn=1
echo “random_pic_num is:” $random_verb_num
verb=$(ls $pic_dir_path/$fn\ *.jpg | sed “s/^.*$fn \(.*\).jpg/\1/” )
echo $verb
mypid=$$
viewnior $pic_dir_path/$fn\ *.jpg < /dev/null &
cpid=$!
if [ $more_local_info == “y” ]
then
random_verb_num=$( $dir_path/random1 1 5)
echo “random verb num is ” $random_verb_num
fn=$random_verb_num
if [ -e $dir_txt_path/local_flora_facts/$fn\ *.txt ]
then
num_facts=$( grep -c . $dir_txt_path/local_flora_facts/$fn\ *.txt )
echo “I am in this loop.” $num_facts
num_facts=$(( $num_facts – 1 ))
picked_fact=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_facts )
correctquote=$( echo “$picked_fact”c )
dfact=$( grep “^$correctquote:” $dir_txt_path/local_flora_facts/$fn\ *.txt | sed “s/^.*c://” )
xmessage -timeout 30 $dfact < /dev/null &
fi
fi
fi
if [ $with_music == “y” ]
then
num_mus=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_files )
num_mus_fixed=$(echo $num_mus | sed -e “s/^0//”)
prob_time=$(( ${time_array[$num_mus_fixed]} – 20 ))
ssx=($(expr $($dir_path/random1 0 $prob_time)))

mplayer -msglevel all=-1 -profile gnome-mplayer -ss $ssx -endpos 30 -volume 200 “$mus_dir_path”/$num_mus*.*
fi
kill -s SIGTERM $cpid
if [ $with_quotes == “y” ]
then
num_quotes=$( grep -c . $dir_txt_path/environmental_quotes.txt )
picked_quote=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_quotes )
correctquote=$( echo “$picked_quote”c )
dquote=$( grep “^$correctquote:” $dir_txt_path/environmental_quotes.txt | sed “s/^.*c://”)
xmessage -timeout 30 $dquote < /dev/null &
fi
else
echo “No.  The correct answer is:” $echo_verb
wrongverbs=$( echo $wrongverbs, $echo_verb )
fi
if [ $read_aloud == “y” ]
then
repeat=”y”
if [ -e /mnt/sda1/Documents\ and\ Settings/TEMP/My\ Documents/My\ Music/aaenglish\ highlit/$verb$quizfact.* ]
then
while [ $repeat == “y” ]
do
mplayer -volume 80 /mnt/sda1/Documents\ and\ Settings/TEMP/My\ Documents/My\ Music/aaenglish\ highlit/$verb$quizfact.*
echo “Write the sentences that you heard on paper.  Repeat? (y or n. The default is n.)”
read repeat
if [ -e $repeat]
then
repeat=”n”
fi

done
echo
#$shighlit=$(grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$fn*.txt | sed -e “s/^.* SHIGHLIT:\(.*\)TRANSSHIGHLIT:.*/\1/”)
#$echo $shighlit
#$echo
#$echo “Count the number of mistakes in what you wrote. One point for every word.”
#$echo How many errors?
#$read fault_number
if [ -e $fault_number ]
then
fault_number=0
fi
sum_faults=$(( $sum_faults + $fault_number ))
fi
fi
#$trans_sent=$(grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$fn*.txt | sed -e “s/^.*ETSENT1:\(.*\)ETSENT2:.*/\1/”)
#
echo
#$shighlit=$(grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$fn*.txt | sed -e “s/^.* SHIGHLIT:\(.*\)TRANSSHIGHLIT:.*/\1/”)
#$echo $shighlit
#echo
#echo “Please finish by reading the above sentence out loud.”
#read
echo “The line number is:” $quizfact
#echo $testline | sed “s/.*(\(.*\)).*/\1/”
#                echo $testline | sed “s/\(.*[ |^]_\)_*_\(_.*\)/\1$echo_verb\2/”
#                echo $testline | sed “s/\(.*_\)_*_\(_.*\)/\1$echo_verb\2/”
echo_in_color_br_sentence
#echo $trans_sent
aver_right=$( $dir_path/intdiv2float $right $asked | sed -e “s/\([0-9]*\…\).*/\1/” )
echo $right “/” $asked ” correct.  Batting average:” $aver_right “Dictation errors: ” $sum_faults
echo “Please wait…I’m looking for another question…”
fi
fi
done
hours_end=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\1/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
min_end=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\2/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
sec_end=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\3/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
hours_diff=$(( $hours_end – $hours_bgn ))
min_diff=$(( $min_end – $min_bgn ))
sec_diff=$(( $sec_end – $sec_bgn ))
midnight=12
if [ $hours_diff -lt 0 ]
then
hours_diff=$(( $(( $midnight – $hours_bgn )) + $hours_end ))
# fix hour change if it happens at midnight or noon,
fi
time_of_ans=$(( $hours_diff * 60 + $min_diff ))
aver_time=$( $dir_path/intdiv2float $time_of_ans $((asked – 1)) | sed -e “s/\([0-9]*\…\).*/\1/” )

echo “You worked ” $time_of_ans “minutes for an average of: ” $aver_time “minutes per question, and a sum of ” $(($asked – 1)) “questions.” | tee >>sommaire.out
echo “The correct answers (” $right “):” $rightverbs  | tee >>sommaire.out
wrong=$(( $asked – $right – 1 ))
echo “The incorrect answers (” $wrong “):” $wrongverbs | tee >>sommaire.out
num_entries=$(grep “^[0-9]*c:” $dir_txt_path/*.txt | grep -c .)
echo “The database had ” $num_entries “entries.” | tee >>sommaire.out
echo “Your percentage: ” $aver_right | tee >>sommaire.out
cat sommaire.out
echo “Life is a tree. You are a meristem.  How would you like to differentiate from here?”
echo “Choices are:”
echo “1. Painting a picture of a flower.”
echo “2. Yoga or prayer activity.”
echo “3. Nature walk with dogs and camera.”
echo “4. Gardening activity.”
echo “5. Relaxation or sleep.”
echo
echo “Enter a number, or enter R to have the computer randomly choose an activity.”
read choice
if [ $choice == “R” ]
then
comp_choice=$( $dir_path/random1 1 5 )
echo “You won the lottery! The random choice was: $comp_choice.  Enjoy your activity!”
#fi
else
echo “You chose $choice.  Enjoy your activity.”
fi
;;
esac

—————————————————————————————————-

The data file deriving from the pdf “Botany Basics” by Ann Marie VanDerZanden

01c: ANSWER: monocot QUESTION: One of the differences between a dicot and a _________ is that a dicot has two seed leaves, and when this type has only one.
02c: ANSWER: dicot QUESTION: In contrast to a monocot where xylem and phloem are paired in bundles dispersed through the stem, in a _________, xylem and phloem form rings inside the stem.
03c: ANSWER: xylem QUESTION: The _________ forms the inner ring in a dicot.
04c: ANSWER: vascular QUESTION: The __________ system of a plant is composed of xylem and phloem, the water, nutrient and food conducting tissues.
05c: ANSWER: monocot QUESTION: The floral parts of a __________ are usually in threes or multiples of three.
06c: ANSWER: dicot QUESTION: The floral parts of a __________ are usually in multiples of four or five.
07c: ANSWER: monocot QUESTION: The leaves of a ___________ are often parallel-veined, in contrast to other types which are usually net-veined.
08c: ANSWER: dicotyledonous QUESTION: A dicot is short for a ______________ plant.
09c: ANSWER: vascular QUESTION: Ferns and seed-producing plants fall into the category of ______________ plants.
10c: ANSWER: anther QUESTION: The pollen sac on a male flower is called an ____________.
11c: ANSWER: apex QUESTION: The tip of a shoot or root is called the _________.
12c: ANSWER: axil QUESTION: The location where a leaf joins a stem is called an __________.
13c: ANSWER: cambium QUESTION: The layer of growing tissue that separates the xylem and phloem and continuously produces new xylem and phloem cells is called the __________.
14c: ANSWER: ovary QUESTION: The part of a female flower where eggs are located is called the _____________.
15c: ANSWER: petiole QUESTION: The stalk that attaches a leaf to a stem is called the _____________.
16c: ANSWER: phloem QUESTION: The photosynthate-conducting tissue in the vascular system is called the ___________.
17c: ANSWER: photosynthesis QUESTION: The process in green plants of converting carbon dioxide and water into food (sugars and starches) using energy from sunlight is called _______________.
18c: ANSWER: pistil QUESTION: A __________ is the female flower part consisting of a stigma, style, and ovary.
19c: ANSWER: guard QUESTION: Epidermal cells that open and close to let water, oxygen and carbon dioxide pass through the stomata are called ______ cells.
20c: ANSWER: internode QUESTION: The space between nodes on a stem is called an __________________.
21c: ANSWER: epidermis QUESTION: The outermost layer of plant cells is called the _______________.
22c: ANSWER: mesophyll QUESTION: A leaf’s inner tissue, located between the upper and lower epidermis, contains the chloroplasts and other specialized cellular parts and is called the _____________.
23c: ANSWER: cuticle QUESTION: The __________ is a relatively impermeable surface layer on the epidermis of leaves and fruits.
24c: ANSWER: cotyledon QUESTION: The first leaf that appears on a seedling is called a ______________.  It is also called a seed leaf.
25c: ANSWER: turgor QUESTION: The cellular water pressure responsible for keeping cells firm is called __________.
26c: ANSWER: style QUESTION: The ________ is the part of the female flower that connects the stigma to the ovary.  Pollen travels down this to reach the ovary where fertilization occurs.
27c: ANSWER: stomata QUESTION: The _________ are tiny openings in the epidermis that allow water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide to pass into and out of a plant.
28c: ANSWER: cortex QUESTION: The cells that make up the primary tissue of the root and stem are called the _________.
29c: ANSWER: stamen QUESTION: The _______ is the male flower part, consisting of an anther and a supporting filament.
30c: ANSWER: energy QUESTION: Respiration is the process of converting sugars and startches into __________.
31c: ANSWER: Meristems QUESTION: _______  are specialized groups of cells that are a plant’s growing points.
32c: ANSWER: dominance QUESTION: The tendency of an apical bud to produce hormones that suppress growth of buds below it on the stem is called apical ___________.
33c: ANSWER: node QUESTION: An area on a stem where a leaf, stem, or flower bud is located is called a ________.
34c: ANSWER: light QUESTION: Chlorophyll is the green pigment in leaves that is responsible for trapping _______ energy from the sun.
35c: ANSWER: photosynthesis QUESTION: A specialized component of certain cells that contains chlorophyll and is responsible for ______________ is called a chloroplast.
36c: ANSWER: annual QUESTION: An __________, such as a marigold, completes its life cycle in one year.
37c: ANSWER: summer QUESTION: A __________ annual completes its life cycle during the spring and summer.  It germinates, grows, matures, blooms, produces seed, and dies during this period.
38c: ANSWER: winter QUESTION: A __________ annual completes its life cycle during the fall and winter. It germinates, grows, matures, blooms, produces seed, and dies during this period.
39c: ANSWER: biennial QUESTION: A _________ completes its life cycle in 2 years.  During the first year, it produces vegetative structures such as leaves and food storage organs.  It overwinters, and then the next year, produces flowers, fruit, and seeds, during its next season.
40c: ANSWER: Bolting QUESTION: ___________  is when a biennial plant goes from seed germination to seed production in one year.
41c: ANSWER: biennials QUESTION: Parsley, swiss chard, sweet William, carrots, and beets are all ___________.
42c: ANSWER: drought QUESTION:  Bolting in biennials can be produced by extreme temperature variation or __________.
43c: ANSWER: Perennial QUESTION: ____________ plants live more than 2 years.
44c: ANSWER: perennial QUESTION: A delphinium is an example of a herbacious ___________: a plant with a soft nonwoody stem that generally dies back into the ground each winter, and produces new stems from its crowns the next spring.
45c: ANSWER: woody QUESTION: Trees and shrubs are examples of ________ perennials.
46c: ANSWER: totipotent QUESTION: Because plant cells are ____________, each cell retains all of the genetic information required to produce the entire plant: roots, stems, leaves, and flowers.
47c: ANSWER: vegetative QUESTION: Asexual or ___________ reproduction occurs because plant cells are totipotent. This is the reason houseplants can be shared via cuttings.
48c: ANSWER: tissues QUESTION: Plant __________ are organized groups of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function.
49c: ANSWER: Meristems QUESTION: ____________ are the sites of rapid, almost continuous cell division.
50c: ANSWER: hormones QUESTION: How meristems divide is controlled by a complex array of plant __________ and environmental conditions.  They can be manipulated to change plant growth patterns, flowering, branching, or vegetative growth.
51c: ANSWER: organs QUESTION: External plant structures such as leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, and seeds are known as plant __________.
52c: ANSWER: organ QUESTION: An ____ is an organized group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function.
53c: ANSWER: Sexual QUESTION: ________ reproductive parts produce seed.  They include flower buds, flowers, fruit and seeds.
54c: ANSWER: Vegetative QUESTION: __________ parts of some plants include roots, stems, shoots, nodes, buds and leaves.
55c: ANSWER: asexual QUESTION: Cuttings, budding, or grafting are ________ forms of reproduction that use vegetative parts of plants.
56c: ANSWER: Roots QUESTION: __________ are vegetative organs of plants that lack nodes and never bear leaves or flowers directly.
57c: ANSWER: root QUESTION: The principal function of a _______ is to absorb nutrients and moisture, anchor the plant in the soil, support the stem and store food.
58c: ANSWER: some QUESTION: Roots can be used for propagation in ___(all, some, or no)__ plants.
59c: ANSWER: meristematic QUESTION: The three major parts of a root are the ____________ zone, the zone of elongation, and the zone of maturation.
60c: ANSWER: elongation QUESTION: The three major parts of a root are the meristematic zone, the zone of __________, and the zone of maturation.
61c: ANSWER: maturation QUESTION: The three major parts of a root are the meristematic zone, the zone of elongation, and the zone of ____________.
62c: ANSWER: meristematic QUESTION: In the  ____________ zone at the tip of a root, the cells are rapidly dividing.
63c: ANSWER: elongation QUESTION: In the zone of __________ in the middle of a root, cells increase in size through food and water, pushing the root through the soil.
64c: ANSWER: maturation QUESTION: In the zone of ___________ at the top of the root just below the stem, cells differentiate to become epidermis, cortex, or vascular tissue.
65c: ANSWER: cap QUESTION: A root _______ is located at the tip of the root.  It consists of cells that are shed as the root grows, and it serves to protect the meristem.
66c: ANSWER: epidermal QUESTION: Root hairs are delicate, elongated _________ cells that occur in a small zone just behind the root’s growing tip.  They serve to increase the root’s absorbtive capacity.
67c: ANSWER: hairs QUESTION: Root ______ live only 1 to 2 days.
68c: ANSWER: symbiotic QUESTION: Many roots have naturally occurring ___________ relationships with certain fungi.
69c: ANSWER: Fungi QUESTION: __________ grow inside plant roots and in the surrounding soil helping to facilitate mineral uptake.
70c: ANSWER: hyphae QUESTION: The threadlike cells of the fungi called ________ grow through the soil increasing the area available for the absorption of food and nutrients.
71c: ANSWER: carbohydrates QUESTION: Plants provide _____________ through photosynthesis for the fungi.
72c: ANSWER: mycorrhizae QUESTION: The beneficial association between fungus and root is called _________________.
73c: ANSWER: Ectotrophic QUESTION: ____________ mycorrhizae do not penetrate the cells, but form a thick sheath of fungal hyphae around the roots, with some of the mycellium growing between the cortical cells.
74c: ANSWER: Vesicular-arbuscular QUESTION: ______________ mycorrhizae do not produce a fungal sheath around roots, but grow in clusters outside of the root and penetrate individual cells of the cortex.
75c: ANSWER: Some QUESTION: ____(All, Some, No)______ plants require mycorrhizae to survive.
76c: ANSWER: nodules QUESTION: Legumes and a few plants such as alder produce root __________, which contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria that can fix atmospheric nitrogen in a form that can be used by plants.
77c: ANSWER: nitrogen QUESTION: Legumes and a few plants such as alder produce root nodules, which contain bacteria that can fix atmospheric __________ in a form that can be used by plants.
78c: ANSWER: nitrogen QUESTION: Garden seeds such as peas, beans, and clover are innoculated with __________-fixing bacteria when planted.  Because inoculums are living organisms, they must be fresh and handled properly.
79c: ANSWER: primary QUESTION: There are 2 major types of roots: ___________ and lateral roots.
80c: ANSWER: lateral QUESTION: There are 2 major types of roots: primary and ___________ roots.
81c: ANSWER: tap QUESTION: A primary root is called a ____root if it continues to elongate downward, has limited secondary branching and becomes the central feature of the root system.
82c: ANSWER: tap QUESTION: Dandelions and carrots have ____roots.
83c: ANSWER: embryo QUESTION: A primary root originates at the lower end of a seedling’s __________.
84c: ANSWER: secondary QUESTION: A lateral, or ___________ root is side root that arises from another root.
85c: ANSWER: fibrous QUESTION: A _________ root system is formed if the primary root ceases to elongate and produces numerous lateral roots.
86c: ANSWER: fibrous QUESTION: Some plants, such as grasses, naturally produce a __________ root system.
87c: ANSWER: taproot QUESTION: Severing a plant’s __________ by undercutting it can encourage the plant to produce a fibrous root system.
88c: ANSWER: taproot QUESTION: Nursuries sometimes undercut the _________ on a tree that naturally produce one because trees with compact fibrous root systems transplant more successfully.
89c: ANSWER: fertilizer QUESTION: A band of __________ several inches to each side and slightly below newly planted seeds helps early growth of most row crops.
90c: ANSWER: feeder QUESTION: For most plants, the majority of the absorbing or _______ roots are located in the top 6-12 inches of soil.
91c: ANSWER: Cold QUESTION: ______ soils reduce deep root development.
92c: ANSWER: water QUESTION: Roots in _______-saturated soils do not grow well and may die due to lack of oxygen.
93c: ANSWER: oxygen QUESTION: Roots in water-saturated soils do not grow well and may die due to lack of ________.
94c: ANSWER: drained QUESTION: Roots penetrate deeper in loose, well-________ soil.
95c: ANSWER: Dense QUESTION: _________ or compacted soil layers can restrict or terminate root growth.
96c: ANSWER: insulation QUESTION: Container plants not only have a restricted area for root growth, but are also susceptible to cold damage because the limited amount of soil surrounding the roots reduces _______________.
97c: ANSWER: drip QUESTION: In addition to growing downward, roots grow laterally and often extend well beyond a plant’s _______ line.
98c: ANSWER: tuberous QUESTION: Sweet potatoes are swollen ___________ roots.
99c: ANSWER: taproots QUESTION: Carrots, beets, rutabaga, parsnips, turnips, and radishes are elongated _____________.
100c: ANSWER: vascular QUESTION: The __________ system inside the stem forms a continuous pathway from the root, through the stem, and finally to the leaves, transporting water and food.
101c: ANSWER: Xylem QUESTION: ________ tubes conduct water and dissolved minerals.
102c: ANSWER: Phloem QUESTION: _________ tubes carry food such as starches.
103c: ANSWER: cambium QUESTION: The _________ is a layer of meristematic tissue that continuously produces new xylem and phloem cells.  It is responsible for a stem’s increase in girth.
104c: ANSWER: line QUESTION: Xylem and phloem tissues on a grafted scion (top wood) and rootstock need to ________ up, if the graft is to take.
105c: ANSWER: girdling QUESTION: Careless weed trimming can strip the bark off a tree, injuriing the cambium and _______ the tree causing it to die.
106c: ANSWER: insects QUESTION: Stem boring ______ are attracted to cuts made by weed trimmers.
107c: ANSWER: bundles QUESTION: In a monocot, the xylem and phloem are paired in ________ dispersed throughout the stem.
108c: ANSWER: phloem QUESTION: The ________ forms the outer ring in a dicot, and eventually becomes part of the bark in mature woody stems.
109c: ANSWER: Xylem QUESTION: ________ forms the first inner ring inside the stem of a dicot.
110c: ANSWER: Sapwood QUESTION: __________ is newer xylem that is still conducting.
111c: ANSWER: Heartwood QUESTION: ___________ is older xylem that is crushed in the center of the stem and no longer conducting.  It is filled with waste materials like gums, resins, tannins, and oils.
112c: ANSWER: shoot QUESTION: A _______ is a young stem (1 year or less) with leaves.
113c: ANSWER: twig QUESTION: A ________ is a young stem (1 year or less) that is in the dormant winter stage (has no leaves).
114c: ANSWER: branch QUESTION: A _________ is a stem that is more than a year old, typically wiith lateral stems radiating from it.
115c: ANSWER: trunk QUESTION: A __________ is a woody plant’s main stem.
116c: ANSWER: pith QUESTION: The inner most core cylinder of a dicot is referred to as the ________.
117c: ANSWER: above QUESTION: When pruning a tree, one should cut just ______ but not too close to a node, to encourage the buds at that node to form new stems or leaves.
118c: ANSWER: length QUESTION: The _________ of an internode is determined by many factors:  genetics, fertilizers, lack of light, season, branching of stems, plant growth regulators.
119c: ANSWER: Stretch QUESTION: ___________ or etoliation occurs in seedlings started indoors or in houseplants.
120c: ANSWER: Rhizomes QUESTION: _____________, as well as tubers, corms, and bulbs, are examples of stems that grow below ground.
121c: ANSWER: stems QUESTION: All _______ must have buds or leaves.
122c: ANSWER: Crowns QUESTION: __________ (on strawberries, dandelions, and African violets) are compressed stems with leaves and flowers on short internodes.
123c: ANSWER: Spurs QUESTION: _______ are short, stubby side stems arising from a main stem, like the fruit-bearing stems on pear, apple, and cherry trees.
124c: ANSWER: Stolons QUESTION: _________ are fleshy or semiwoody, elongated, horizontal stems that often lie along the soil surface.
125c: ANSWER: stolons QUESTION: Strawberry runners are ___________ that have small leaves at the nodes.
126c: ANSWER: eye QUESTION: When growing potatoes from seed pieces, it is important that each piece contain at least one _____ and be at least 2 ounces or 2 1/2 inches in diameter so that there will be enough energy for growth.
127c: ANSWER: Rhizomes QUESTION: __________ resemble stolons because they grow horizontally from plant to plant.  Some like the iris are compressed and fleshy, while others like bluegrass are slender with elongated internodes.
128c: ANSWER: bulbs QUESTION: Tulips, lilies, and onions produce _______ which are shortened, compressed underground stems surrounded by fleshy scales (leaves) that envelop a central bud at the tip of the stem.
129c: ANSWER: bulb QUESTION: In late Auguest, one can cut a tulip or lily ______ in half and see all of the flower parts in miniature.
130c: ANSWER: leaves QUESTION: One should not remove _______ from lilies and other bulb producinig plants until after they have turned yellow, because they store food for the next year’s flowering.
131c: ANSWER: Tunicate QUESTION: ____________ bulbs (e.g. tulips and onions) have a thin, papery covering, which is actually a modified leaf.
132c: ANSWER: Nontunicate QUESTION: ____________ bulbs (e.g. lilies) lack a papery covering.
133c: ANSWER: Corms QUESTION: __________ are shaped like bulbs, but do not contain fleshy scales.  They are solid, swollen stems with dry, scale-liike leaves.  Gladiolus and crocuses produce them.
134c: ANSWER: tuberous QUESTION: Some plants (some begonias and cyclamen) produce a modified underground stem called a __________ stem.
135c: ANSWER: roots QUESTION: Some plants (dahlias and sweet potatoes) produce underground storage organs called tuberous _____________ that have neither nodes nor internodes.  They are often confused with bulbs and tubers.
136c: ANSWER: stem QUESTION: Aboveground _________ cuttings produce roots and eventually new plants, through vegetative plant propagation, if they contain nodes and internodes.
137c: ANSWER: tissues QUESTION: Belowground stems are good propagative ________: rhizomes can be divided, tubers cut into pieces, or small bublet or cormels removed from parents.
138c: ANSWER: stems QUESTION: In perennial plants, new herbaceous ________ develop from the crown (root-stem interface each year).
139c: ANSWER: xylem QUESTION: The sapwood is the light colored living ________ near the outside just under the bark of a tree.
140c: ANSWER: Canes QUESTION: _________ are stems (e.g. roses, blackberries, raspberry) with relatively large pith or central strength-giving tissues.  They usually live only 1 or 2 years.
141c: ANSWER: Fertilization QUESTION: ____________ is the union of a male sperm nucleus from a pollen grain with a female egg.
142c: ANSWER: ovule QUESTION: If fertilization is successful, the _________ develops into a seed.
143c: ANSWER: sperm QUESTION: When pollen reaches the ovules, it releases __________ and fertilization occurs.
144c: ANSWER: Pollination QUESTION: _____________ does not guarantee that fertilization will occur.  Moisture and temperature are also factors.
145c: ANSWER: Cross QUESTION: ________-fertilization combines genetic material from two similar parent plants from the same species.
146c: ANSWER: genetic QUESTION: Seeds resulting from cross-fertilization have a broader _________ base, perhaps enabling the population to survive under a wider range of environmental conditions.
147c: ANSWER: self QUESTION: Cross-pollinated plants are usually more successful than _______-pollinated plants.
148c: ANSWER: stigma QUESTION: A chemical in the _________ stimilates pollen to grow a long tube down the style to the ovules inside the ovary.
149c: ANSWER: pollen QUESTION: The stigma recognizes ________, which has a chemical specific to that type of plant.
150c: ANSWER: germinate QUESTION: The wrong pollen will not ___________ because it lacks the chemical signature to be recognized by the stigma.
151c: ANSWER: anther QUESTION: Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an _______ to a stigma, either by wind or pollinators.
152c: ANSWER: pollinated QUESTION: Species ____________ by insects, animals, or birds often have brightly colored or patterned flowers that contain fragrance or nectar.
153c: ANSWER: nectar QUESTION: While searching for ___________, pollinators transfer pollen from flower to flower, either on the same plant or on different plants.
154c: ANSWER: bees QUESTION: Zucchini flowers, which are normally pollinated by _____, may have to be hand pollinated in cool wet summers.
155c: ANSWER: ovules QUESTION: Fruit consists of fertilized, mature ______ (seeds) plus the ovary wall.
156c: ANSWER: outside QUESTION: In some fruit like corn and strawberries, seeds are situated on the __________ of fruit tissue.
157c: ANSWER: seed QUESTION: The only part of the fruit that contains genes from both the male and female flowers is the ________.
158c: ANSWER: Simple QUESTION: ________ fruit like cherries, peaches, pears, apples, squash, cucumbers, eggplants, and tomatoes develop from a single ovary.
159c: ANSWER: flower QUESTION: Although generally referred to as a vegetable, tomatoes technically are a fruit because they develop from a __________.
160c: ANSWER: dry QUESTION: Examples of ____ simple fruit are peanuts (legumes), poppies (capsule), maples (samara), and walnuts (nut).
161c: ANSWER: aggregate QUESTION: An ___________ fruit (strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries) develops from a single flower with many ovaries.
162c: ANSWER: pistils QUESTION: In aggregate fruit, the flower is a simple flower with one corolla, one calyx and one stem, but it has many _________ or ovaries.
163c: ANSWER: ovary QUESTION: In aggregate fruit, each ______ must be fertilized seperately.  If some ovules are not pollinated successfully, the fruit will be misshapen.
164c: ANSWER: Multiple QUESTION: ____________ fruits (ex. pineapples and figs) are derived from a tight cluster of separate, independent flowers borne on a single structure.  Each flower has its own calyx and corolla.
165c: ANSWER: fruit QUESTION: A ripened mature ovary that contains seed is a ________.
166c: ANSWER: shrub QUESTION: In contrast to trees that have one main trunk usually greater than 12 feet tall when mature, a ________ has several main stems, less than 12 feet tall when mature.
167c: ANSWER: vine QUESTION: A _________ is a plant with long, trailing stems.  Some grow along the ground, while others require support.
168c: ANSWER: twining QUESTION: Honeysuckle and hops are examples of _________ vines that circle clockwise.
169c: ANSWER: counter QUESTION: Pole beans are examples of twining vines that circle _______clockwise.
170c: ANSWER: aerial QUESTION: Climbing vines like English ivy and poison ivy are supported by __________ roots.
171c: ANSWER: tendrils QUESTION: Climbing vines such as cucumbers, gourds, grapes, and passionflowers use slender _______ to encircle a supporting object.
172c: ANSWER: adhesive QUESTION: Some climbing vines like Virginia and Japanese creepers have tendrils with ___________ tips.
173c: ANSWER: stems QUESTION: Asparagus and kohlrabi are enlarged, succulent ________.
174c: ANSWER: rhizome QUESTION: A ginger “root” is actually a _______ or underground stem.
175c: ANSWER: underground QUESTION: The edible tuber of a potato and the Jerusalem artichoke are both ____________ stems.
176c: ANSWER: bud QUESTION: A ______ is an undeveloped shoot from which leaves or flowers grow.
177c: ANSWER: scales QUESTION: The buds of temperate-zone trees and shrubs typically develop a protective outer layer of small leathery _________.
178c: ANSWER: rest QUESTION: Buds of many plants require exposure to a certain number of days (called a _______ period) below a critical temperature before resuming growth in the spring.
179c: ANSWER: Dormant QUESTION: Rest periods can vary among plants from Forsythia which grows at the first sign of warm weather, to peaches that may require 700 to 1000 hours below 45F.  ___________ buds can withstand very low temperature, but may be susceptible to damage by cold temperature or frost after the rest period.
180c: ANSWER: Leaf QUESTION: _________ buds are often less plump and more pointed than flower buds.
181c: ANSWER: embryonic QUESTION: A leaf bud is composed of a short stem with __________ leaves.
182c: ANSWER: embryonic QUESTION: A flower bud is composed of a short stem with ____________ flower parts.
183c: ANSWER: terminal QUESTION: A ___________ bud is located at the apex of a stem.
184c: ANSWER: lateral QUESTION: A ____________ bud is located on the side of a stem arising in the axil where the petiole meets the stem.
185c: ANSWER: Adventitious QUESTION: ___________ buds may develop from roots, a stem initernode, the edge of a leafe blade or callus tissue at the cut end of a stem or root.  The allow stem, leaf, and root cuttinigs to develop into entirely new plants.
186c: ANSWER: buds QUESTION: Cabbage and head lettuce are examples of unusually large terminal _____.
187c: ANSWER: axillary QUESTION: Succulent ________ buds are the edible part of Brussels sprouts.
188c: ANSWER: flower QUESTION: Broccoli and cauliflower are important horticultural plants with edible ________ buds.
189c: ANSWER: absorb QUESTION: The principal function of leaves is to __________ sunlight needed to manufacture plant sugars through a process called photosynthesis.
190c: ANSWER: sessile QUESTION: A __________ or stalkless leaf blade lacks a petiole.
191c: ANSWER: petioles QUESTION: Celery and rhubarb stalks are examples of edible leaf __________.
192c: ANSWER: blade QUESTION: The _________ is the expanded thin structure on either side of a leaf midrib.
193c: ANSWER: pubescence QUESTION: Some leaves, such as African violets, have hairs (_________________) which are extensions of the epidermal cells that make the leaves feel like velvet.
194c: ANSWER: cutin QUESTION: The cuticle produces a waxy layer called ________ which protects the leaf from dehydration and disease.  It increases with light intensity.
195c: ANSWER: hardening QUESTION: The gradual exposure to sunlight over a period of a few weeks when moving plants from shade into full sunlight is called ____________ off.
196c: ANSWER: water QUESTION: Hardening off allows the cutin layer to build up to protect leaves from rapid ________ loss or sunscald.
197c: ANSWER: stomata QUESTION: In most species, the majority of _________ are located on the undersides of leaves, where guard cells regulate the passage of water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide into and out of the leaf.
198c: ANSWER: air QUESTION: The spongy mesophyll, in contrast to the more dense upper palisade mesophyll contains lots of _____ space.
199c: ANSWER: Spines QUESTION: _________ and tendrils such as those on barberry and pea plants are leaves that protect the plant, and help to support it.
200c: ANSWER: bracts QUESTION: The showy structures on dogwoods and poinsettias are _______, a kind of leaf, not petals.
201c: ANSWER: Opposite QUESTION: ___________ leaves are positioned across the stem from each other, with 2 leaves at each node.
202c: ANSWER: spiral QUESTION: Alternate or ___________ leaves are arranged in alternate steps along the stem, with only one leaf at each node.
203c: ANSWER: Whorled QUESTION: __________ leaves are arranged in circles along the stem.
204c: ANSWER: Rosulate QUESTION: __________ leaves are arranged in a rosette around a stem with extremely short nodes.
205c: ANSWER: Compound QUESTION: ___________ leaves are composed of several separate leaflets arising from the same petiole.
206c: ANSWER: pinnate QUESTION: In _______ venation of a leaf (apples, cherries, and peaches), the veins extend laterally from the midrib to the edge.
207c: ANSWER: palmate QUESTION: In _________ venation of a leaf (grapes and maples), the principal veins extend outward, like the ribs of a fan from the base of the leaf blade.
208c: ANSWER: cutin QUESTION: Many pesticides contain an additive to help the product adhere to, or penetrate, the waxy _________.
209c: ANSWER: Guard QUESTION: _________ cells close when plants might lose a lot of water (high temperature, low humidity), or when there is no light.
210c: ANSWER: chloroplasts QUESTION: Located within the mesophyll are _________, where photosynthesis takes place.
211c: ANSWER: cataphylls QUESTION: Scale leaves or ___________ are found on rhizomes and buds, which they enclose and protect.
212c: ANSWER: Storage QUESTION: _________ leaves, such as those on bulbous plants and succulents, store food.
213c: ANSWER: bracts QUESTION: The showy structures on dogwoods and poinsettias are ________, not petals.  These often are brightly colored modified leaves.
214c: ANSWER: venation QUESTION: There are two principal types of ____________ in leaves: parallel and net.
215c: ANSWER: veins QUESTION: The vascular bundles of xylem and phloem extend from the stem, through the petiole and into the leaf blade as __________.
216c: ANSWER: parallel QUESTION: In _______-veined leaves, numerous veins run parallel to each other and are connected laterally by minute, straight veinlets.
217c: ANSWER: Parallel QUESTION: __________-veined leaves occur most often on monocotyledonous plants.
218c: ANSWER: grass QUESTION: The most common type of parallel veining is founnd in plants of the ________ family, whose veins run from the leaf’s base to its apex.
219c: ANSWER: midrib QUESTION: Another type of parallel venation is found in plants such as banana, calla and pickerel weed.  Their veins run laterally from the _________.
220c: ANSWER: reticulate QUESTION: Net-veined leaves are also called __________-veined leaves.
221c: ANSWER: Net QUESTION: _____-veined leaves occur on dicotyledonous plants.
222c: ANSWER: veinlets QUESTION: In net-veined leaves, veins branch from the main rib of ribs and subdivide into finer __________.
223c: ANSWER: pinnate QUESTION: In _________ net venation, the veins extend laterally from the midrib to the edge (e.g. apples, cherries, and peaches).
224c: ANSWER: palmate QUESTION: In __________ net venation, the veins extend outward, like the ribs of a fan, from the base of the leaf blade (e.g. grapes and maples).
225c: ANSWER: tearing QUESTION: The system of enmeshed veins in net venation makes the leaf more resistant to _________ than does a parallel vein structure.
226c: ANSWER: charateristics QUESTION: A leaf’s shape, base, apex and margin can be important identifying ____________.
227c: ANSWER: leaf QUESTION: The edible part of leeks, onions, and Florence fennel is a cluster of fleshy ________ bases.
228c: ANSWER: blade QUESTION: The leaf ________ is the edible part of several horticultural crops, including chives, collards, endive, kale, leaf lettuce, mustard, parsley, spinach, Swiss chard and other greens.
229c: ANSWER: petiole QUESTION: The __________- is the edible product in celery and rhubarb.
230c: ANSWER: lanceolate QUESTION: One of the 5 common blade shapes, a ____________ blade shape is longer than wide and tapering toward the apex and base.
231c: ANSWER: linear QUESTION: One of the 5 common blade shapes, a ____________ blade shape is narrow, several times longer than wide and of approximately the same width throughout.
232c: ANSWER: cordate QUESTION: One of the 5 common blade shapes, a ____________ or heart-shaped blade shape is broadly ovate, tapering to an acute apex, with the base turning in annd forming a notch where the petiole is attached.
233c: ANSWER: elliptical QUESTION: One of the 5 common blade shapes, a ____________ blade shape is about 2 or 3 times longer than wide, tapering to an acute or rounded apex and base.
234c: ANSWER: ovate QUESTION: One of the 5 common blade shapes, an ____________ blade shape is egg-shaped, the basal portion is wide and tapering toward the apex.
235c: ANSWER: margin QUESTION: The outer border of a leaf blade is called a ___________.
236c: ANSWER: entire QUESTION: A leaf margin form that has a smooth edge with no teeth or notches is called ________.
237c: ANSWER: crenate QUESTION: A leaf margin form that has rounded teeth is called ____________.
238c: ANSWER: dentate QUESTION: A leaf margin form that has teeth ending in an acute angle pointing outward is called ____________.
239c: ANSWER: serrate QUESTION: A leaf margin form that has small, sharp teeth pointing toward the apex is called ____________.
240c: ANSWER: incised QUESTION: A leaf margin form that cuts into sharp, deep, irregular teeth is called _____________.
241c: ANSWER: lobed QUESTION: A leaf margin that has incisions that extend less than halfway to the midrib is called ____________.
242c: ANSWER: acute QUESTION: Of the 3 common apex shapes, an ________ apex shape ends with a sharp but not narrow point.
243c: ANSWER: acuminate QUESTION: Of the 3 common apex shapes, an ________ apex shape ends with a long narrow point.
244c: ANSWER: obtuse QUESTION: Of the 3 common apex shapes, an ________ apex shape tapers to a rounded edge.
245c: ANSWER: obtuse QUESTION: Of the 3 common base shapes, an ________ base shape tapers to a rounded base.
246c: ANSWER: cuneate QUESTION: Of the 3 common base shapes, a ________ base shape is wedge-shaped, triangular with a narrow end at the point of attachment at the base.
247c: ANSWER: cordate QUESTION: Of the 3 common base shapes, a ________ base shape turns in to form a notch, making the leaf look like a heart.
248c: ANSWER: reproduction QUESTION: The sole function of a flower, the showiest part of a plant, is sexual _______________.
249c: ANSWER: Fragrance QUESTION: ______________ and color attract polinators (insects or birds) to flowers, thereby playing an important role in the reproductive process.
250c: ANSWER: pollen QUESTION: The stamen is the male reproductive organ.  It consists of a __________ sac (anther) and a long supporting filament.
251c: ANSWER: center QUESTION: The pistil is a plant’s female part.  It generally is shaped like a bowling pin and is located in the flower’s __________.
252c: ANSWER: eggs QUESTION: The ovary of a flower contains ______, which reside in ovules.
253c: ANSWER: stigma QUESTION: The very tip of the pistil, or female flower part, is called the __________.
254c: ANSWER: seed QUESTION: If an egg is fertilized in a flower, the ovule develops into a __________.
255c: ANSWER: sepals QUESTION: The small, green, leaf-like structures located at the base of a flower are called _______, and serve to protect the flower bud.
256c: ANSWER: calyx QUESTION: Collectively, the sepals or leaf-like structures at the base of a flower are called a __________.
257c: ANSWER: corolla QUESTION: Collectively, the petals of a flower are called a ____________.
258c: ANSWER: petals QUESTION: The highly colored multiple portions that form part of the corolla of a flower are called ____________.
259c: ANSWER: dicots QUESTION: Flowers of _________ typically have four or five sepals and/or petals, or multiples of thereof.
260c: ANSWER: three QUESTION: Monocots typically have _______ sepals and/or petals, or multiples of this number.
270c: ANSWER: incomplete QUESTION: If a flower is missing a stamen, pistil, petals, or sepals, it is called _______________.
271c: ANSWER: perfect QUESTION: If a flower contains both functional stamens and pistils, it is called a ___________ flower, even if it does not contain petals and/or sepals.
272c: ANSWER: Pistilate QUESTION: __________ (female) flowers possess a functional pistil or pistils, but no stamen.
273c: ANSWER: Staminate QUESTION: ___________ (male) flowers possess stamens, but no pistils.
274c: ANSWER: flowers QUESTION: Monoecious plants have separate male and female __________ on the same plant (corn and pecans).
275c: ANSWER: beginning QUESTION: Some monoecious plants bear only male flowers at the _________ of the growing season, but later develop both sexes (cucumbers and squash).
276c: ANSWER: Dioecious QUESTION: ____________ species have separate male and female plants (kiwi, ginkgos, cottonwood).
277c: ANSWER: pollination QUESTION: In order for dioecious plants to set fruit, male and female plants must be planted close enough together for _____________ to occur.
278c: ANSWER: solitary QUESTION: A ____________ flower bears only one flower per stem.
279c: ANSWER: inflorescence QUESTION: An _____________ is a cluster of flowers produced by a single plant.
280c: ANSWER: floret QUESTION: Each flower in an inflorescence is called a __________.
281c: ANSWER: racemose QUESTION: In an inflorescence that belongs to the ___________ group, the florets start blooming from the bottom of the stem and progress toward the top.
282c: ANSWER: cymose QUESTION: In an inflorescence that belongs to the ___________ group, the top floret starts blooming first, and the blooms progress downward along the stem.
283c: ANSWER: Wind QUESTION: _______-pollinated flowers often lack showy floral parts and nectar because they don’t need to attract pollinators.
284c: ANSWER: stigma QUESTION: A chemical in the _________ stimulates pollen to grow a long tube down the style to the ovules inside the ovary.
285c: ANSWER: germinate QUESTION: Pollen that lacks the chemical specific for its recognition by the stigma of the species, will not ________________.
286c: ANSWER: nucleus QUESTION: Fertilization is the union of a male sperm ________ from a pollen grain with a female egg.
287c: ANSWER: Cross QUESTION: ________-pollinated plants are usually more successful than self-pollinated plants.
288c: ANSWER: The reduction of fruit set in tomatoes and cucumbers in greenhouse settings may be due to a reduction in _____________ when high temperature or moisture stresses are present.
289c: ANSWER: seeds QUESTION: In corn and strawberries, _______ are situated on the outside of fruit tissue.
290c: ANSWER: genes QUESTION: The only part of the fruit that contains ________ from both male and female flowers is the seed.  The rest of the fruit is genetically identical to the mother.
291c: ANSWER: flower QUESTION: Although generally referred to as a vegetable, tomatoes technically are a fruit because they develop from a __________.
292c: ANSWER: ovary QUESTION: Squash, cucumbers and eggplants develop from a single _______ and are classified botanically as fruits.
293c: ANSWER: aggregate QUESTION: The flower of an __________ fruit such as strawberies, raspberries, or blackberries has one corolla, one calyx, and one stem, but it has many pistils or ovaries which must be separately fertilized.
294c: ANSWER: coat QUESTION: Of the 3 parts of a seed, the seed ________ is the hard outer covering that protects the seed from disease and insects, and prevents water from entering the seed and initiating germination before the proper time.
295c: ANSWER: endosperm QUESTION: Of the 3 parts of a seed, the seed ________ or cotyledon is the seed’s built-in food supply, made up of proteins, carbohydrates or fats.
296c: ANSWER: embryo QUESTION: Of the 3 parts of a seed, the seed ________ is a miniature plant in an arrested state of development that will grow when conditions are favorable.
297c: ANSWER: water QUESTION: Before any visible signs of germination appear, the seed must absorb ________ through its seed coat.
298c: ANSWER: Germination QUESTION: _____________, the process whereby a seed embryo goes from a dormant to an active state, requires enough oxygen, water, and a favorable temperature.  In some species, it requires light; in others, it requires darkness.
299c: ANSWER: radicle QUESTION: The __________ is the first part of the seedling to emerge from the seed.
300c: ANSWER: gravity QUESTION: The radicle develops into the primary root, and grows downward in response to __________.
301c: ANSWER: leaves QUESTION: The seed _________, or cotyledons, encase the embryo, and are shaped differently than the leaves the mature plant will produce.  Monocots have one; dicots, two.
302c: ANSWER: dormancy QUESTION: There are 2 kinds of seed __________:  seed coat, and embryo.
303c: ANSWER: scarification QUESTION: The process of ____________ can be used to break or soften the seed coat. The heat of a forest fire, the digestion of seed by a bird or mammal or the partial breakdown of seed coat by fungi or insects are natural ways this happens.  It can also be accomplished by nicking the seed coat with a file, or chemically by softening the seed coat with sulfuric acid.
304: ANSWER: missing pages 21-22 QUESTION:
305c: ANSWER: Photosynthesis QUESTION: ____________, respiration, and transpiration are the three major physiological functions that drive plant growth and development.
306c: ANSWER: respiration QUESTION: Photosynthesis, ____________, and transpiration are the three major physiological functions that drive plant growth and development.
307c: ANSWER: transpiration QUESTION: Photosynthesis, respiration, and _____________ are the three major physiological functions that drive plant growth and development.
308c: ANSWER: photosynthesis QUESTION: The process that allows plants to manufacture their own food from sunlight, water, and air, is called _____________, which literally means “to put together with light”.
309c: ANSWER: carbon dioxide QUESTION: During photosynthesis, _________________ is split into carbon and oxygen.  The plant also adds water and forms carbohydrates.
310c: ANSWER: Oxygen QUESTION: ____________ is a by-product of photosynthesis that exits the plant through the stomata.
311c: ANSWER: Water QUESTION: The formula for photosynthesis can be written as:  Carbon dioxide + _______ + Sunlight →  Sugar + Oxygen
312c: ANSWER: Carbon dioxide QUESTION: The formula for photosynthesis can be written as:  _________ + Water + Sunlight →  Sugar + Oxygen
313c: ANSWER: Sunlight QUESTION: The formula for photosynthesis can be written as:  Carbon dioxide + Water + __________ →  Sugar + Oxygen
314c: ANSWER: Sugar QUESTION: The formula for photosynthesis can be written as:  Carbon dioxide + Water + Sunlight →  ________ + Oxygen
315c: ANSWER: Oxygen QUESTION: The formula for photosynthesis can be written as:  Carbon dioxide + Water + Sunlight →  Sugar + ________
316c: ANSWER: Carbohydrates QUESTION: ____________ will be used, stored, or built into complex energy compounds such as oils and proteins.
317c: ANSWER: photosynthates QUESTION: Plants use ____________ (carbohydrates, oils, and protein) under conditions where light is limited, or transports them to its roots or developing fruits.
318c: ANSWER: chloroplasts QUESTION:  Something the size of a period on a page would contain 400,000 __________, organelles where photosynthesis occurs.
319c: ANSWER: Chlorophyll QUESTION: ___________, the pigment that makes leaves green, is responsible for trapping light energy from the sun.
320c: ANSWER: perpendicular QUESTION: Chloroplasts are arranged _______________ to the incoming sun rays to absorb maximum sunlight.
321c: ANSWER: photosynthesis QUESTION:  If light, water, or carbon dioxide are lacking for a long period of time, ____________ will stop and the plant will die.
322c: ANSWER: intensity QUESTION: For each plant species, there is a maximum level of light ___________ above which photosynthesis does not increase.
323c: ANSWER: spectrum QUESTION: Photosynthesis occurs predominately in the orange-red region and in the blue-violet region of the ___________ where the chlorophylls absorb.
324c: ANSWER: maximum QUESTION: Many garden crops, such as tomatoes, respond best to ____________ sunlight.
325c: ANSWER: stomata QUESTION: Photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide which enters a plant through its __________.
326c: ANSWER: carbon dioxide QUESTION: To ensure adequate ____________ in some greenhouses, ventilation may be required.
327c: ANSWER: oxidation QUESTION: The chemical process by which sugars and starches are converted to energy is called ____________.
328c: ANSWER: respiration QUESTION: Controlled oxidation in a living cell is called _____________.
329c: ANSWER: building QUESTION: Photosynthesis is a ___________ process, while respiration is a breaking-down process.
330c: ANSWER: light QUESTION: Unlike photosynthesis, respiration does not depend on _______, so it occurs at night as well as during the day.
331c: ANSWER: transpiration QUESTION: When a leaf’s guard cells shrink, the stomata open and water vapor is lost in a process called _____________.
332c: ANSWER: transpiration QUESTION: The rate of _____________ is directly related to whether stomata are open or closed.
333c: ANSWER: Photosynthesis QUESTION: ____________ produces food while respiration uses food.
334c: ANSWER: respiration QUESTION: Photosynthesis stores energy while __________ releases energy.
335c: ANSWER: Photosynthesis QUESTION: ______________ uses water while respiration produces water.
336c: ANSWER: respiration QUESTION: Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide while _____________ produces carbon dioxide.
337c: ANSWER: oxygen QUESTION: Photosynthesis releases ___________ while respiration uses it.
338c: ANSWER: sunlight QUESTION: Photosynthesis only occurs in __________; while respiration also occurs in the dark.
339c: ANSWER: evaporation QUESTION: Water moving via the transpiration stream is responsible for cooling the plant through ____________.
340c: ANSWER: Water QUESTION: _________ moving via the transpiration stream is responsible for maintaining cell firmness.
341c: ANSWER: 90 QUESTION: Transpiration is a necessary process and uses about _____% of the water that enters a plant’s roots.
342c: ANSWER: negative QUESTION: Evaporating water causes a ________ water pressure in the plant and more water and dissolved nutrients are pulled up from the roots.
343c: ANSWER: stomata QUESTION: The rate of transpiration is directly related to whether __________ are open or closed.
344c: ANSWER: transpiration QUESTION: In order for a plant to grow and develop properly, it must balance photosynthesis, respiration, and _____________.
345c: ANSWER: water QUESTION: A corn plant may transpire 50 gallons of _______ per season, but a large tree may move 100 gallons a day.
346c: ANSWER: close QUESTION: During periods of heat, stomata may ________ to prevent water loss.  If they remain in this state for a long time, not enough carbon dioxide will enter for photosynthesis to occur, and the plant’s growth will be retarded.
347c: ANSWER: oils QUESTION: Many herb plants produce high-energy _____ to help them survive extended periods of stomatal closure in dry landscapes.
348c: ANSWER: stress QUESTION: Environmental ______ can weaken a plant and make it more susceptible to disease or insect attack.
349c: ANSWER: Environmental QUESTION: ___________ factors that affect plant growth include light, temperature, water, humidity, and nutrition.
350c: ANSWER: light QUESTION: Three principal characeristics of ________ affect plant growth: quantity, quality, and duration.
351c: ANSWER: light QUESTION: The maximum amount of __________ is present in summer, and the minimum in winter.
352c: ANSWER: Increase QUESTION: Light quantity can be manipulated to achieve different plant growth patterns.  _________ light by surrounding plants with reflective materials, a white background or supplemental lights.
353c: ANSWER: Decrease QUESTION: Light quantity can be manipulated to achieve different plant growth patterns.  _________ light by shading plants with cheesecloth or woven shade cloth.
354c: ANSWER: Short QUESTION: _______-day plants require a long period of uninterrupted darkness to flower.
355c: ANSWER: Short QUESTION: _______-night plants require a short period of uninterrupted darkness to flower.
356c: ANSWER: Blue QUESTION: ______ light is responsible for vegetative (leaf) growth.
357c: ANSWER: Red QUESTION: _______ light, when combined with blue light, encourages flowering.
358c: ANSWER: reflect QUESTION: Plants look green because they _________ green light.
359: stopped on p. 26

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