Muscle Work

I spent a little time working on the heartwork 0.1 program.  I put in 3 different anatomy options (heart, muscle, and vessels).  I also put in an option to opt out of music and pictures, for the sake of speed and timing/testing if one wants.  There are 124 heart questions in the gen_heart_facts.txt file now, and 61 muscle anatomy questions in the gen_muscle_facts.txt file.  The latter only has single word muscles currently available.  The problem with answers containing multiple words is not yet solved in this program, although I remember solving it for the French, Spanish, and Italian hypertense programs so that the articles would work.  I have not had time yet to go back and fix this anew.  It will eventually make both the heart and muscle sections better.

I’m in awe of everything that still does work in my body!  I eventually hope to add an optional set of exercises to complete after each muscle so that one does not become completely sedentary in front of the computer…

———————————————————————————————————

#!/bin/bash
# heartwork.sh v.0.2 a program submitted by livedoggb on 12/26/2012
# dependencies compiled random1.c, intdiv2float.c, botany directory containing a botany_pics subdirectory with jpg pictures of local flora numbered 01 dandelion.jpg 12 prickly poppy.jpg etc.
# a heart subdirectory inside the for_kids directory that has a file named gen_heart_facts.txt, gen_muscle_facts.txt, gen_vessels_facts.txt, etc.
# itunes directory named flower music with songs that you want to use sequentially numbered 01 …, 02 …, 03 … etc.
# a local_flora_txt subdirectory within botany containing files named 01 dandelion.txt, 02 prickly_poppy.txt, etc.
# with the number corresponding to the line number of the verb in the text file.
# It also outputs a file sommaire.out that has the statistics of your session.
dir_path=”/mnt/sdd1″
dir_txt_path=$( echo $dir_path/for_kids/heart )
pic_dir_path=$( echo $dir_path/botany/botany_Houston_pics )
mus_dir_path=$( echo $dir_path/botany/botany_Houston_mus )

temp_path=/root/
if [ -e $temp_path/sommaire.out ]
then
rm $temp_path/sommaire.out
fi
if [ -n $temp_path/botany_own_pics ]
then
mkdir $temp_path/botany_own_pics
fi
if [ -n $temp_path/botany_own_mus ]
then
mkdir $temp_path/botany_own_mus
fi
function choose_anatomy {
echo  “Pick a system to work on:”
echo
echo “1.  The heart”
echo “2.  Muscles”
echo “3.  Circulation”
echo
echo “Please choose an option.”
read organ
case $organ in
1)
organ_fname=”gen_heart_facts.txt”
;;
2)
organ_fname=”gen_muscle_facts.txt”
exercise_option=”y”
;;
3)
organ_fname=”gen_vessel_facts.txt”
;;
esac
return
}
function set_path {
echo
echo “1.  Use Houston pictures and Verdi’s 4 Seasons.”
echo “2.  Use your own pictures and music moved to the root directory in a”
echo ”    subdirectory called botany_own_pics and botany_own_music.”
echo “3.  Opt out of music and pictures.”
echo
echo “Please choose an option.”
read pic_set
case $pic_set in
1)
pic_dir_path=$( echo $pic_dir_path/ )
mus_dir_path=$( echo $mus_dir_path)
show_pics=”y”
with_music=”y”
;;
2)
pic_dir_path=$( echo $pic_dir_path/$own_dir_path )
mus_dir_path=$( echo $temp_path/botany_own_mus )
show_pics=”y”
with_music=”y”
;;
3)
opt_out_of_music_and_pics=”y”
show_pics=”n”
with_music=”n”
;;
esac
return
}

function trim_line {
i=1
echo
#num_words=$(gawk ‘{ sum += $1 }; END { print sum }’ testline.out)
words_left=”c”
while [ “$words_left” != “” ]
do
j=$(( $i + 7 ))
words_left=$( echo $line | cut -d’ ‘ -f$i-$j )
echo $words_left
i=$(( $j + 1 ))
done
return
}

function echo_in_color_br_sentence {
part1=$( echo $testline | sed “s/\(.*_\)_*_\(_.*\)/\1/” )
part2=$( echo $testline | sed “s/\(.*_\)_*_\(_.*\)/$echo_verb/” )
part3=$( echo $testline | sed “s/\(.*_\)_*_\(_.*\)/\2/” )
#”blue”
echo -n -e ‘\E[47;34m'”33[1m$part133[0m”
#”red”
echo -n -e ‘\E[47;31m'”33[1m$part233[0m”
#”blue”
echo -e ‘\E[47;34m'”33[1m$part333[0m”
tput sgr0
return
}
choose_anatomy
#rm $dir_path/hyper-tense-files_used.out
sum_fautes=0
echo “Please wait for a few minutes while the system sets up the music database.”
if [ -e $dir_path/hyper-tense-flowers-time2.out ]
then
echo “The program has found a time file.”
echo “1. Use this file.”
echo “2. Make a new time file. Choose 2 if you have changed the music.”
echo “Please choose:  (If you aren´t sure, choose 2.  The default is 2.)”
read choice
else
choice=2
fi
if [ -e $choice ]
then
choice=”2″
fi
echo “The best way to end the program in slideshow mode is to press the ESC key.”
echo
case “$choice” in
1)
echo “Using the old file.”
;;
2)
echo “Making another file.  This will take a few minutes.  Please be patient.”
echo
echo
echo “0” > $temp_path/hyper-tense-flowers-time2.out
if [ -n $mus_dir_path/*.* ]
then
echo “A link to your music does not exist in the root file system.  Please fix this.”
else
mplayer -msglevel all=-1 -profile gnome-mplayer -ss 10 -endpos 1 -volume 0 $mus_dir_path/*.* | tee $temp_dir/temp.out | grep “^A: ” | sed -e ‘s/^A: .* of \([0-9]*\).* .*/\1/g’ >> $temp_path/hyper-tense-flowers-time2.out
fi
;;
esac
time_array=($(cat $temp_path/hyper-tense-flowers-time2.out))
i=1
num_files=$(expr $(grep -c . $temp_path/hyper-tense-flowers-time2.out))

i=0
while [ $i -lt $num_files ]
do
echo “$i. ${time_array[$i]}”
i=$(( $i + 1 ))
done
num_files=$(( $num_files – 1 ))
echo “num_files=” $num_files
echo “Several options are possible.  Please choose.”
echo
echo “1. Slideshow”
echo “2. Instruction”
echo “3. Quiz (interactive).”
echo
echo -n “Please choose:”
read choice
#echo  “With quotes? Choose y or n.  Default is n.”
#read with_quotes
#echo “Oral reading? Choose y or n. Default is n.”
#read read_aloud
#echo “With pictures? Choose y or n. Default is y.”
#read show_pics
#echo “With music? Choose y or n. Default is y.”
#read with_music
with_quotes=”n”
read_aloud=”n”

more_local_info=”n”
if [ -e $read_aloud ]
then
read_aloud=”n”
fi
if [ -e $with_quotes ]
then
with_quotes=”n”
fi
if [ -e $show_pics ]
then
show_pics=”y”
fi
if [ -e $with_music ]
then
with_music=”y”
fi
case “$choice” in
1)
echo “Slideshow mode.”
set_path
viewnior –slideshow $pic_dir_path/01\ *.jpg < /dev/null &
mplayer -msglevel all=-1 -profile gnome-mplayer -volume 200 “$mus_dir_path”/*.*
;;
2)
echo “Instruction mode.”
set_path
echo “All information derives from $organ_fname in the folder botany.”
c=””
right=0
asked=0
rightverbs=””
wrongverbs=””
average=0
verb_guess=””
num_vfiles=$(expr $(ls -1  $pic_dir_path/*.jpg | grep -c . ))
echo “num_vfiles=” $num_vfiles
hours_bgn=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\1/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
min_bgn=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\2/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
sec_bgn=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\3/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )

while [ -e $c ]
do
if [ -e $dir_txt_path/$organ_fname ]
then
maxlinenum=$( grep -c . $dir_txt_path/$organ_fname)
#maxlinenum=$(( $maxlinenum – 1  ))
quizfact=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $maxlinenum)
correctquizfact=$( echo “$quizfact”c)
omit_line=$( grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$organ_fname)
#      echo “random quiz line is:” $quizfact $correctquizfact
if [ “$omit_line” != “” ]
then
#echo “The verb is: ” $verb
echo “Random quiz line is:” $quizfact

testline=$( grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$organ_fname | sed -e “s/^.*QUESTION:\(.*\)/\1/” )
line=$testline
echo_verb=$( grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$organ_fname | sed -e “s/^.*ANSWER:\(.*\) QUESTION:.*/\1/” )
echo_in_color_br_sentence

asked=$(( $asked + 1 ))
echo “Press enter to continue (enter e to exit):”
read verb_guess
if [ “$verb_guess” == “e” ]
then
break
fi
verb_guess=$echo_verb
if [ $verb_guess == $echo_verb ]
then
echo “Correct.”
right=$(( $right + 1 ))
average=$(( $right/$asked ))
rightverbs=$( echo $rightverbs, $echo_verb)
if [ $show_pics == “y” ]
then
random_verb_num=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_vfiles)
fn=$random_verb_num
#fn=1
echo “random_pic_num is:” $random_verb_num
verb=$(ls $pic_dir_path/$fn\ *.jpg | sed “s/^.*$fn \(.*\).jpg/\1/” )
echo $verb
mypid=$$
viewnior $pic_dir_path/$fn\ *.jpg < /dev/null &
cpid=$!
if [ $more_local_info == “y” ]
then
random_verb_num=$( $dir_path/random1 1 5)
echo “random verb num is ” $random_verb_num
fn=$random_verb_num
if [ -e $dir_txt_path/local_flora_facts/$fn\ *.txt ]
then
num_facts=$( grep -c . $dir_txt_path/local_flora_facts/$fn\ *.txt )
echo “I am in this loop.” $num_facts
num_facts=$(( $num_facts – 1 ))
picked_fact=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_facts )
correctquote=$( echo “$picked_fact”c )
dfact=$( grep “^$correctquote:” $dir_txt_path/local_flora_facts/$fn\ *.txt | sed “s/^.*c://” )
xmessage -timeout 30 $dfact < /dev/null &
fi
fi
fi
if [ $with_music == “y” ]
then
num_mus=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_files )
num_mus_fixed=$(echo $num_mus | sed -e “s/^0//”)
prob_time=$(( ${time_array[$num_mus_fixed]} – 20 ))
ssx=($(expr $($dir_path/random1 0 $prob_time)))

mplayer -msglevel all=-1 -profile gnome-mplayer -ss $ssx -endpos 30 -volume 200 “$mus_dir_path”/$num_mus*.*
kill -s SIGTERM $cpid
fi
if [ $with_quotes == “y” ]
then
num_quotes=$( grep -c . $dir_txt_path/environmental_quotes.txt )
picked_quote=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_quotes )
correctquote=$( echo “$picked_quote”c )
dquote=$( grep “^$correctquote:” $dir_txt_path/environmental_quotes.txt | sed “s/^.*c://”)
xmessage -timeout 30 $dquote < /dev/null &
fi
else
echo “No.  The correct answer is:” $echo_verb
wrongverbs=$( echo $wrongverbs, $echo_verb )
fi
if [ $read_aloud == “y” ]
then
repeat=”y”
if [ -e /mnt/sda1/Documents\ and\ Settings/TEMP/My\ Documents/My\ Music/aaenglish\ highlit/$verb$quizfact.* ]
then
while [ $repeat == “y” ]
do
mplayer -volume 80 /mnt/sda1/Documents\ and\ Settings/TEMP/My\ Documents/My\ Music/aaenglish\ highlit/$verb$quizfact.*
echo “Write the sentences that you heard on paper.  Repeat? (y or n. The default is n.)”
read repeat
if [ -e $repeat]
then
repeat=”n”
fi

done
echo
#$shighlit=$(grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$fn*.txt | sed -e “s/^.* SHIGHLIT:\(.*\)TRANSSHIGHLIT:.*/\1/”)
#$echo $shighlit
#$echo
#$echo “Count the number of mistakes in what you wrote. One point for every word.”
#$echo How many errors?
#$read fault_number
if [ -e $fault_number ]
then
fault_number=0
fi
sum_faults=$(( $sum_faults + $fault_number ))
fi
fi
#$trans_sent=$(grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$fn*.txt | sed -e “s/^.*ETSENT1:\(.*\)ETSENT2:.*/\1/”)
#
echo
#$shighlit=$(grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$fn*.txt | sed -e “s/^.* SHIGHLIT:\(.*\)TRANSSHIGHLIT:.*/\1/”)
#$echo $shighlit
#echo
#echo “Please finish by reading the above sentence out loud.”
#read
echo “The line number is:” $quizfact
#echo $testline | sed “s/.*(\(.*\)).*/\1/”
#                echo $testline | sed “s/\(.*[ |^]_\)_*_\(_.*\)/\1$echo_verb\2/”
#                echo $testline | sed “s/\(.*_\)_*_\(_.*\)/\1$echo_verb\2/”
#                echo_in_color_br_sentence
#echo $trans_sent
aver_right=$( $dir_path/intdiv2float $right $asked | sed -e “s/\([0-9]*\…\).*/\1/” )
echo $right “/” $asked ” correct.  Batting average:” $aver_right “Dictation errors: ” $sum_faults
echo “Please wait…I’m looking for another question…”
fi
fi
done
hours_end=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\1/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
min_end=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\2/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
sec_end=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\3/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
hours_diff=$(( $hours_end – $hours_bgn ))
min_diff=$(( $min_end – $min_bgn ))
sec_diff=$(( $sec_end – $sec_bgn ))
midnight=12
if [ $hours_diff -lt 0 ]
then
hours_diff=$(( $(( $midnight – $hours_bgn )) + $hours_end ))
# fix hour change if it happens at midnight or noon,
fi
time_of_ans=$(( $hours_diff * 60 + $min_diff ))
aver_time=$( $dir_path/intdiv2float $time_of_ans $((asked – 1)) | sed -e “s/\([0-9]*\…\).*/\1/” )

echo “You worked ” $time_of_ans “minutes for an average of: ” $aver_time “minutes per question, and a sum of ” $(($asked – 1)) “questions.” | tee >>$temp_path/sommaire.out
echo “The correct answers (” $right “):” $rightverbs  | tee >>$temp_path/sommaire.out
wrong=$(( $asked – $right – 1 ))
echo “The incorrect answers (” $wrong “):” $wrongverbs | tee >>$temp_path/sommaire.out
num_entries=$(grep “^[0-9]*c:” $dir_txt_path/*.txt | grep -c .)
echo “The database had ” $num_entries “entries.” | tee >>$temp_path/sommaire.out
echo “Your percentage: ” $aver_right | tee >>$temp_path/sommaire.out
cat $temp_path/sommaire.out
echo “Life is a tree. You are a meristem.  How would you like to differentiate from here?”
echo “Choices are:”
echo “1. Painting a picture of a flower.”
echo “2. Yoga or prayer activity.”
echo “3. Nature walk with dogs and camera.”
echo “4. Gardening activity.”
echo “5. Relaxation or sleep.”
echo
echo “Enter a number, or enter R to have the computer randomly choose an activity.”
read choice
if [ $choice == “R” ]
then
comp_choice=$( $dir_path/random1 1 5 )
echo “You won the lottery! The random choice was: $comp_choice.  Enjoy your activity!”
#fi
else
echo “You chose $choice.  Enjoy your activity.”
fi
;;
3)
echo “Quiz mode.”
set_path
echo “All information derives from $organ_fname in the folder hearts.”
c=””
right=0
asked=0
rightverbs=””
wrongverbs=””
average=0
verb_guess=””
num_vfiles=$(expr $(ls -1  $pic_dir_path/*.jpg | grep -c . ))
echo “num_vfiles=” $num_vfiles
hours_bgn=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\1/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
min_bgn=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\2/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
sec_bgn=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\3/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )

while [ -e $c ]
do
if [ -e $dir_txt_path/$organ_fname ]
then
maxlinenum=$( grep -c . $dir_txt_path/$organ_fname)
#maxlinenum=$(( $maxlinenum – 1  ))
quizfact=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $maxlinenum)
correctquizfact=$( echo “$quizfact”c)
omit_line=$( grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$organ_fname)
#      echo “random quiz line is:” $quizfact $correctquizfact
if [ “$omit_line” != “” ]
then
#echo “The verb is: ” $verb
echo “Random quiz line is:” $quizfact

testline=$( grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$organ_fname | sed -e “s/^.*QUESTION:\(.*\)/\1/” )
line=$testline
trim_line
verb_guess=””
asked=$(( $asked + 1 ))
while [ -e $verb_guess ]
do
echo “Enter your answer (enter e to exit):”
read verb_guess
done
if [ “$verb_guess” == “e” ]
then
break
fi
echo_verb=$( grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$organ_fname | sed -e “s/^.*ANSWER:\(.*\) QUESTION:.*/\1/” )
if [ $verb_guess == $echo_verb ]
then
echo “Correct.”
right=$(( $right + 1 ))
average=$(( $right/$asked ))
rightverbs=$( echo $rightverbs, $echo_verb)
if [ $show_pics == “y” ]
then
random_verb_num=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_vfiles)
fn=$random_verb_num
#fn=1
echo “random_pic_num is:” $random_verb_num
verb=$(ls $pic_dir_path/$fn\ *.jpg | sed “s/^.*$fn \(.*\).jpg/\1/” )
echo $verb
mypid=$$
viewnior $pic_dir_path/$fn\ *.jpg < /dev/null &
cpid=$!
if [ $more_local_info == “y” ]
then
random_verb_num=$( $dir_path/random1 1 5)
echo “random verb num is ” $random_verb_num
fn=$random_verb_num
if [ -e $dir_txt_path/local_flora_facts/$fn\ *.txt ]
then
num_facts=$( grep -c . $dir_txt_path/local_flora_facts/$fn\ *.txt )
echo “I am in this loop.” $num_facts
num_facts=$(( $num_facts – 1 ))
picked_fact=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_facts )
correctquote=$( echo “$picked_fact”c )
dfact=$( grep “^$correctquote:” $dir_txt_path/local_flora_facts/$fn\ *.txt | sed “s/^.*c://” )
xmessage -timeout 30 $dfact < /dev/null &
fi
fi
fi
if [ $with_music == “y” ]
then
num_mus=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_files )
num_mus_fixed=$(echo $num_mus | sed -e “s/^0//”)
prob_time=$(( ${time_array[$num_mus_fixed]} – 20 ))
ssx=($(expr $($dir_path/random1 0 $prob_time)))

mplayer -msglevel all=-1 -profile gnome-mplayer -ss $ssx -endpos 30 -volume 200 “$mus_dir_path”/$num_mus*.*
kill -s SIGTERM $cpid
fi
if [ $with_quotes == “y” ]
then
num_quotes=$( grep -c . $dir_txt_path/environmental_quotes.txt )
picked_quote=$( $dir_path/random1 1 $num_quotes )
correctquote=$( echo “$picked_quote”c )
dquote=$( grep “^$correctquote:” $dir_txt_path/environmental_quotes.txt | sed “s/^.*c://”)
xmessage -timeout 30 $dquote < /dev/null &
fi
else
echo “No.  The correct answer is:” $echo_verb
wrongverbs=$( echo $wrongverbs, $echo_verb )
fi
if [ $read_aloud == “y” ]
then
repeat=”y”
if [ -e /mnt/sda1/Documents\ and\ Settings/TEMP/My\ Documents/My\ Music/aaenglish\ highlit/$verb$quizfact.* ]
then
while [ $repeat == “y” ]
do
mplayer -volume 80 /mnt/sda1/Documents\ and\ Settings/TEMP/My\ Documents/My\ Music/aaenglish\ highlit/$verb$quizfact.*
echo “Write the sentences that you heard on paper.  Repeat? (y or n. The default is n.)”
read repeat
if [ -e $repeat]
then
repeat=”n”
fi

done
echo
#$shighlit=$(grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$fn*.txt | sed -e “s/^.* SHIGHLIT:\(.*\)TRANSSHIGHLIT:.*/\1/”)
#$echo $shighlit
#$echo
#$echo “Count the number of mistakes in what you wrote. One point for every word.”
#$echo How many errors?
#$read fault_number
if [ -e $fault_number ]
then
fault_number=0
fi
sum_faults=$(( $sum_faults + $fault_number ))
fi
fi
#$trans_sent=$(grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$fn*.txt | sed -e “s/^.*ETSENT1:\(.*\)ETSENT2:.*/\1/”)
#
echo
#$shighlit=$(grep “^$correctquizfact:” $dir_txt_path/$fn*.txt | sed -e “s/^.* SHIGHLIT:\(.*\)TRANSSHIGHLIT:.*/\1/”)
#$echo $shighlit
#echo
#echo “Please finish by reading the above sentence out loud.”
#read
echo “The line number is:” $quizfact
#echo $testline | sed “s/.*(\(.*\)).*/\1/”
#                echo $testline | sed “s/\(.*[ |^]_\)_*_\(_.*\)/\1$echo_verb\2/”
#                echo $testline | sed “s/\(.*_\)_*_\(_.*\)/\1$echo_verb\2/”
echo_in_color_br_sentence
#echo $trans_sent
aver_right=$( $dir_path/intdiv2float $right $asked | sed -e “s/\([0-9]*\…\).*/\1/” )
echo $right “/” $asked ” correct.  Batting average:” $aver_right “Dictation errors: ” $sum_faults
echo “Please wait…I’m looking for another question…”
fi
fi
done
hours_end=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\1/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
min_end=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\2/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
sec_end=$( date| sed “s/.* \(..\):\(..\):\(..\).*/\3/”| sed “s/0\([0-9]\)/\1/” )
hours_diff=$(( $hours_end – $hours_bgn ))
min_diff=$(( $min_end – $min_bgn ))
sec_diff=$(( $sec_end – $sec_bgn ))
midnight=12
if [ $hours_diff -lt 0 ]
then
hours_diff=$(( $(( $midnight – $hours_bgn )) + $hours_end ))
# fix hour change if it happens at midnight or noon,
fi
time_of_ans=$(( $hours_diff * 60 + $min_diff ))
aver_time=$( $dir_path/intdiv2float $time_of_ans $((asked – 1)) | sed -e “s/\([0-9]*\…\).*/\1/” )

echo “You worked ” $time_of_ans “minutes for an average of: ” $aver_time “minutes per question, and a sum of ” $(($asked – 1)) “questions.” | tee >>$temp_path/sommaire.out
echo “The correct answers (” $right “):” $rightverbs  | tee >>$temp_path/sommaire.out
wrong=$(( $asked – $right – 1 ))
echo “The incorrect answers (” $wrong “):” $wrongverbs | tee >>$temp_path/sommaire.out
num_entries=$(grep “^[0-9]*c:” $dir_txt_path/*.txt | grep -c .)
echo “The database had ” $num_entries “entries.” | tee >>$temp_path/sommaire.out
echo “Your percentage: ” $aver_right | tee >>$temp_path/sommaire.out
cat $temp_path/sommaire.out
echo “Life is a tree. You are a meristem.  How would you like to differentiate from here?”
echo “Choices are:”
echo “1. Painting a picture of a flower.”
echo “2. Yoga or prayer activity.”
echo “3. Nature walk with dogs and camera.”
echo “4. Gardening activity.”
echo “5. Relaxation or sleep.”
echo
echo “Enter a number, or enter R to have the computer randomly choose an activity.”
read choice
if [ $choice == “R” ]
then
comp_choice=$( $dir_path/random1 1 5 )
echo “You won the lottery! The random choice was: $comp_choice.  Enjoy your activity!”
#fi
else
echo “You chose $choice.  Enjoy your activity.”
fi
;;
esac

———————————————————————————————————-

gen_heart_facts.txt

01c: ANSWER: 120 QUESTION: Blood pressure readings are generally represented as 120/80, for example.  _______ is the systolic blood pressure.
02c: ANSWER: 80 QUESTION: Blood pressure readings are generally represented as 120/80, for example.  _______ is the diastolic blood pressure..
03c: ANSWER: diastolic QUESTION: 70-90 mm Hg is the normal range for the ____________ blood pressure.
04c: ANSWER: systolic QUESTION: 110-130 mm Hg is the normal range for the ____________ blood pressure.
05c: ANSWER: systolic QUESTION: The __________ blood pressure is the pressure required to stop blood flow through the artery, at which point the sound of the heart beat transmits to the stethoscope as the blood pushes against the barrier.
06c: ANSWER: diastolic QUESTION: The __________ blood pressure is the pressure required to restore blood flow through the artery, at which point the sound of the heart beat is no longer detected by the stethoscope because the blood flows through the barrier.
07c: ANSWER: 4 QUESTION: The human heart has ___ chambers.  The 2 halves of the heart are separated by a septum.
08c: ANSWER: atrioventricular QUESTION: The first heart sound occurs when the ______________ valves close.
09c: ANSWER: semilunar QUESTION: The second heart sound occurs when the ___________ valves close.
10c: ANSWER: mitral QUESTION: Rheumatic heart disease can cause mild  ________ valve stenosis (< 1.5 square cm).
11c: ANSWER: Rheumatic QUESTION: ________ heart disease causes leaflet thickening, commissural fusion, and chordal fusion of the mitral valve.
12c: ANSWER: left QUESTION: Mitral stenosis causes a pressure overload in the ______ atrium, because of the obstruction to outflow.
13c: ANSWER: atrial QUESTION: Pulmonary venous hypertension, pulmonary artery hypertension, and right heart failure can all result because of an increase in left _______ pressure.
14c: ANSWER: Atrial QUESTION: ________ fibrillation can occur because of an increase in left atrial size.
15c: ANSWER: stenosis QUESTION: Treatments for mitral valve ___________ may include diuretics, slowing the heart rate, and managing atrial fibrillation.
16c: ANSWER: papillary QUESTION: There are 2 sets of ________ muscles that control the mitral valve: lateral, and medial.
17c: ANSWER: chordae QUESTION: The ________ tendinae attach the papillary muscles to the mitral valve.
18c: ANSWER: dilation QUESTION: In mitral regurgitation, cardiac output is sustained with left ventricular ___________.
19c: ANSWER: regurgitation QUESTION: An operation to repair the mitral valve is the first choice in mitral ____________ if the valve is repairable.
20c: ANSWER: stenosis QUESTION: Approximately 25% of all patients with rheumatic heart disease have pure mitral ________, and an additional 40% have this combined with mitral regurgitation.
21c: ANSWER: rheumatic QUESTION: Rare acquired causes of mitral valve obstruction other than __________ heart disease include left atrial myxoma, ball-valve thrombus, mucopolysaccharidosis, and severe mitral annular calcification.
22c: ANSWER: right QUESTION: Severe pulmonary hypertension results in ______-sided heart failure, with dilation of the right ventricle and its annulus and secondary tricuspid and sometimes pulmonic regurgitation.
23c: ANSWER: fibrillation QUESTION: 30-40% of patients with mitral stenosis develop atrial ______________.
24c: ANSWER: stroke QUESTION: Cardiac output is the product of heart rate and _______ volume.
25c: ANSWER: heartbeat QUESTION: Stroke volume is the volume of blood pumped out of the heart with each ___________.
26c: ANSWER: tachycardia QUESTION: Compensatory ___________ occurs when the heart increases its heart rate in order to compensate for a decrease in stroke volume.
27c: ANSWER: stroke volume QUESTION: At heart rates greater than 150, diastolic filling times become so short that the tachycardia will produce a drop in _______ _________.
28c: ANSWER: contractility QUESTION: Stroke volume is affected by 3 factors: preload, postload, and _____________.
29c: ANSWER: preload QUESTION: Cardiac _________ must be carefully adjusted.   Too little, and the cardiac output will be low, leading to a low ejection fraction.  Too much, and the heart muscle will stretch, leading to cardiac failure.
30c: ANSWER: preload QUESTION: Signs of inadequate _________ include: poor skin turgor, dry mucous memebranes, low urine output, tachycardia, thirst, weak pulses, and flat neck veins.
31c: ANSWER: preload QUESTION: Signs of excess ________ in a patient with adequate cardiac function include distended neck veins, crackles in the lungs, and bounding pulses.
32c: ANSWER: preload QUESTION: Increased _________ in a patient with poor cardiac function presents with crackles in the lungs, an S3 heart sound, low urine output, tachycardia, cold clammy skin with weak pulses, and edema.
33c: ANSWER: dehydration QUESTION: Insufficient preload is commonly called hypovolemia or ____________.
34c: ANSWER: sympathetic QUESTION: When insufficient volume is present in the vascular tree, the _________ nervous system is stimulated to release the catecholemines: epinephrine and norepinephrine.
35c: ANSWER: vasoconstriction QUESTION: The catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine cause increased heart rate and arterial ________________.
36c: ANSWER: Afterload QUESTION: ___________ is defined as the resistance that the left ventricle must overcome to eject its load.
37c: ANSWER: resistance QUESTION: The most important determinant of afterload is vascular ____________.
38c: ANSWER: compliance QUESTION: Factors affecting afterload include vascular resistance, blood viscosity, valvular disease, and aortic ____________.
39c: ANSWER: constrict QUESTION: As arterial vessels _________, the afterload increases.
40c: ANSWER: dilate QUESTION: As arterial vessels __________, the afterload decreases.
41c: ANSWER: High QUESTION: ______ afterload increases myocardial work and decreases stroke volume.
42c: ANSWER: high QUESTION: Patients with _______ afterload present with symptoms of arterial vasoconstriction.
43c: ANSWER: vasoconstriction QUESTION: Symptoms of arterial _____________ include cool clammy skin, capillary refill greater than 5 sec, and narrow pulse pressure.
44c: ANSWER: pulse QUESTION: The _______ pressure is calculated by subtracting the diastolic blood pressure from the systolic blood pressure.
45c: ANSWER: 40 QUESTION: The normal pulse pressure at the brachial artery is _____ mm Hg.
46c: ANSWER: work QUESTION: Low afterload decreases cardiac _______ and increases stroke volume.
47c: ANSWER: low QUESTION: Patients with _____ afterload present with symptoms of arterial dilation.
48c: ANSWER: dilation QUESTION: Symptoms of arterial ________ include warm flushed skin, bounding pulses, and wide pulse pressure.
49c: ANSWER: low QUESTION: If afterload is too ________, hypotension may result.
50c: ANSWER: failure QUESTION:  A key component for treatment of heart __________, is afterload reduction using beta blockers and ACE inhibitors.
51c: ANSWER: resistance QUESTION: By decreasing the __________ to ventricular ejection, cardiac output is increased and myocardial work is decreased.
52c: ANSWER: output QUESTION: Increasing cardiac _________ improves the functional status of heart failure patients.
53c: ANSWER: Contractility QUESTION: ___________ refers to the inherent ability of the heart muscle to contract regardless of preload or afterload.
54c: ANSWER: positive QUESTION: Contractility is enhanced by exercise, catecholamines, and ________ inotropic drugs.
55c: ANSWER: negative QUESTION: Contractility is decreased by hypothermia, hypoxemia, acidosis, and _________ inotropic drugs.
56v: ANSWER: compliance QUESTION: Myocardial ___________ refers to the ability of the ventricle to stretch to receive a given volume of blood.
57c: ANSWER: small QUESTION: A normal ventricle is very compliant: A large change in volume will produce a _______ change in pressure.
58c: ANSWER: small QUESTION: If compliance is low, a _______ change in volume will produce a large change in pressure.
59c: ANSWER: increased QUESTION: If compliance is low (the ventricle cannot stretch), it cannot increase cardiac output with __________ preload.
60c: ANSWER: perfusion QUESTION: Adequate cardiac output is necessary for tissue ____________.
61c: ANSWER: perfusion QUESTION: Tissue ___________ is the transfer of oxygen and nutrients from the blood to the tissues.
62c: ANSWER: low QUESTION: Pulse oximetry values are usually ______ when tissue perfusion is compromised to a significant level.
63c: ANSWER: elevated QUESTION: Poor tissue perfusion will be indicated by an __________ lactate level in the arterial blood gases.
64c: ANSWER: low QUESTION: Poor tissue perfusion will be indicated by a ______ pH value in the arterial blood gases.
65c: ANSWER: low QUESTION: Poor tissue perfusion will be indicated by a _______ base excess in the arterial blood gases.
66c: ANSWER: femoral QUESTION: The intra-arterial catheter is typically a 20-gauge IV catheter inserted in the brachial, radial, or ________ artery.
67c: ANSWER: subclavian QUESTION: The central venous catheter is typically a large or small bore catheter with one or more lumens inserted via the _________, interior jugular, or exterior jugular veins.
68c: ANSWER: intercostal QUESTION: To monitor pressure at the heart, the stopcock nearest to the transducer must be placed at the 4th __________ space which is the phlebostatic axis.
69c: ANSWER: Hydrostatic QUESTION: __________ pressure is the force that is exerted by the fluid within the hemodynamic monitoring system against the transducer.
70c: ANSWER: Atmospheric QUESTION: __________ pressure is the force that is exerted at the earth’s surface by the weight of the air that surrounds the earth.
71c: ANSWER: 760 QUESTION: At sea level, atomospheric pressure is ______ mm Hg, but it can vary as a function of altitude.
72c: ANSWER: atmospheric QUESTION: Zeroing the hemodynamic monitoring system eliminates the effect of __________ pressure on the readings.  It can be accomplished before the patient is attached to the system.
73c: ANSWER: mean QUESTION: There is no accurate way of determining aortic pressure, so the _______ arterial pressure (MAP), or the average driving force of arterial pressure throughout the system is often used.
74c: ANSWER: 60 QUESTION: A minimal MAP of _____ mm Hg is required to perfuse the kidneys, heart, and brain.
75c: ANSWER: ventricular QUESTION: A MAP of 70-90 is desirable to reduce left _______ workload in cardiac patients.
76c: ANSWER: cerebral QUESTION: A MAP of 90-110 may be required to maintain __________ perfusion in a neurosurgical patient.
77c: ANSWER: 2 QUESTION: The MAP is calculated as the (SBP + ___ x DBP)/3.
78c: ANSWER: pressure QUESTION: Invasive arterial monitoring measures __________.
79c: ANSWER: flow QUESTION: Non-invasive blood pressure measurement reflects blood ______.
80c: ANSWER: arterial QUESTION: In sepsis, ___________ vasodilation is present, and noninvasive blood pressure measurements will be higher than invasive measurements.
81c: ANSWER: dicrotic QUESTION: The normal arterial pressure wave form has 5 landmarks: anacrotic limb, systolic peak, dicrotic limb which is split by the _______ notch, and the end diastole.
82c: ANSWER: aortic QUESTION: The dicrotic notch of an arterial pressure waveform marks the closure of the _________ valve, and the beginning of diastole.
83c: ANSWER: systole QUESTION: The dicrotic limb of an arterial pressure waveform begins during late ________, as the flow of blood out of the left ventricle begins to decrease.
84c: ANSWER: anacrotic QUESTION: The ________ limb of an arterial pressure waveform begins as the aortic valve opens in early systole.
85c: ANSWER: contractility QUESTION: The steepness, rate of ascent, and height of the anacrotic limb of an arterial pressure wave form is related to the ___________ and stroke volume of the left ventricle.
86c: ANSWER: Hypertension QUESTION: _______________ generally results in a very steep anacrotic limb on a arterial pressure waveform and a shortened early systolic phase of contraction.
87c: ANSWER: Hypotension QUESTION: _______________ generally results in an overdamped appearance of the arterial pressure waveform with a decrease in steepness of the anacrotic limb.
88c: ANSWER: hypotension QUESTION: In ____________, the dicrotic notch may be absent in the arterial pressure waveform.
89c: ANSWER: parietal QUESTION: The pericardium is a double layer of tissue that surrounds the heart.  It is comprised of a visceral serous inner layer, and a _________ outer layer attached to pleura and the diaphragm.
90c: ANSWER: third QUESTION: The muscle fibers of the myocardium are one _______ shorter than average muscle cell fibers.
91c: ANSWER: actin QUESTION: The primary components of the myofibrils of the myodardium are ________ and myosin.
92c: ANSWER: pleural QUESTION: The _______ cavity separates the parietal epicardium from lung tissue.
93c: ANSWER: atrium QUESTION: Each side of the heart has 2 chambers: a ventricle and an _______.
94c: ANSWER: more QUESTION:  The ventricles of the heart are ________ muscular than the atria.
95c: ANSWER: semilunar QUESTION: The two _________ valves of the heart are the pulmonary and the aortic.
96c: ANSWER: atrioventricular QUESTION: The two ___________ valves of the heart are the tricuspid (3 flaps), and the mitral (bicuspid or 2 cusps).
97c: ANSWER: aortic QUESTION: The _________ valve connects the left ventricle with the aortic artery.
98c: ANSWER: mitral QUESTION: The _______ valve connects the left atrium with the left ventricle.
99c: ANSWER: diastole QUESTION: During ________, the mitral and tricuspid valves open after the pulmonary and aortic valves close.
100c: ANSWER: systole QUESTION: During ________, the aortic and pulmonary valves open after the tricuspid and mitral valves close.
101c: ANSWER: tricuspid QUESTION: The ________ valve connects the right atrium to the right ventricle.
102c: ANSWER: pulmonary QUESTION: The __________ valve connects the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery.
103c: ANSWER: pulmonary QUESTION: Blood flows into the left atrium of the heart from the ________ vein.
104c: ANSWER: right QUESTION: Unoxygenated blood flows into the ______ atrium of the heart from the superior vena cava, the inferior vena cava, and from the heart itself through the coronary sinus.
105c: ANSWER: oxygen QUESTION: Blood is pumped through the pulmonic artery to the lungs where it exchanges carbon dioxide for _________.
106c: ANSWER: coronary QUESTION: Of the 4 arteries of the heart (RCA, PDA, LAD, and LCA), RCA stands for right _________ artery.
107c: ANSWER: anterior QUESTION: Of the 4 arteries of the heart (RCA, PDA, LAD, and LCA), LAD stands for left _________ descending artery.
108c: ANSWER: circumflex QUESTION: Of the 4 arteries of the heart (RCA, PDA, LAD, and LCA), LCA stands for left _________ artery.
109c: ANSWER: posterior QUESTION: Of the 4 arteries of the heart (RCA, PDA, LAD, and LCA), PDA stands for _________ descending artery (a branch of the RCA).
110c: ANSWER: Coronary QUESTION: _________ arteries originate in the aorta just above the aortic valve and empty into the coronary sinus.
111c: ANSWER: parasympathetic QUESTION: The ___________ nervous system primarily influences the atria.
112c: ANSWER: sympathetic QUESTION: The ___________ nervous system influences both the atria and ventricles.
113c: ANSWER: diameter QUESTION: The amount of blood a vessel can transport according to Poiseuille’s Law is directly proportional to its ____________.
114c: ANSWER: radius QUESTION: Blood flow through a vessel is directly proportional to the 4th power of the vessel’s ___________.
115c: ANSWER: Capillaries QUESTION: ____________ are points of connection between arterial and venous systems where gases are exchanged.
116c: ANSWER: venules QUESTION: Capillaries drain into _________.
117c: ANSWER: arterioles QUESTION: Capillaries receive blood from ____________.
118c: ANSWER: tunica QUESTION: A typical artery separates the lumen from the muscle by the ___________ intima and an elastic membrane.
119c: ANSWER: media QUESTION: The tunica ________ of an artery is comprised of the elastic membrane and muscle layers.
120c: ANSWER: adventitia QUESTION: The tunica ___________ surrounds the muscular layer of an artery.
121c: ANSWER: minute QUESTION: The heart pumps about 4 to 8 liters of blood into the aorta each __________.
122c: ANSWER: ml QUESTION: Stroke volume is the amount of blood ejected from a ventricle with each heart beat.  A normal stroke volume is usually 60-100 _______.
123c: ANSWER: output QUESTION: Blood pressure is the product of the peripheral resistance and the cardiac _________.
124c: ANSWER: diastole QUESTION: The Frank Starling Law states that the greater the volume of blood in the heart during ________, the more forceful the contraction will be.

——————————————————————————————————–

gen_muscle_facts

01: ANSWER: biceps femoris QUESTION: Blood pressure readings are generally represented as 120/80, for example.  _______ is the systolic blood pressure.
02c: ANSWER: brachioradialis QUESTION:  The ___________ flexes the forearm.  It is innervated by the radial nerve (C5-C7).  It originates in the proximal two thirds of the lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus, and inserts at the lateral surface of the distal end of the radius.
03c: ANSWER: brachialis QUESTION: The ____________ flexes the forearm in all positions.  It is innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve (C5 and C6).  It originates in the distal two thirds of the anterior surface of the humerus.  It inserts at the coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna.
04: ANSWER: biceps brachii QUESTION: 110-130 mm Hg is the normal range for the ____________ blood pressure.
05: ANSWER: adductor pollicis longus QUESTION: The __________ blood pressure is the pressure required to stop blood flow through the artery, at which point the sound of the heart beat transmits to the stethoscope as the blood pushes against the barrier.
06: ANSWER: adductor longus QUESTION: The __________ blood pressure is the pressure required to restore blood flow through the artery, at which point the sound of the heart beat is no longer detected by the stethoscope because the blood flows through the barrier.
07: ANSWER: adductor magnus QUESTION: The human heart has ___ chambers.  The 2 halves of the heart are separated by a septum.
08: ANSWER: adductor minimus QUESTION: The first heart sound occurs when the ______________ valves close.
09: ANSWER: adductor brevis QUESTION: The second heart sound occurs when the ___________ valves close.
10: ANSWER: adductor pollicis QUESTION: Rheumatic heart disease can cause mild  ________ valve stenosis (< 1.5 square cm).
11c: ANSWER: anconeus QUESTION: The ________ assists the triceps in extending the forearm. It stablizes the elbow joint, and abducts the ulna during pronation. It is innervated by the radial nerve (C7, C8, and T1).  It originates at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus.  It inserts at the lateral surface of the olecranon and the superior part of the posterior surface of the ulna.
12: ANSWER: articularis cubiti QUESTION: Mitral stenosis causes a pressure overload in the ______ atrium, because of the obstruction to outflow.
13: ANSWER: articularis genus QUESTION: Pulmonary venous hypertension, pulmonary artery hypertension, and right heart failure can all result because of an increase in left _______ pressure.
14: ANSWER: adductor hallucis QUESTION: ________ fibrillation can occur because of an increase in left atrial size.
15: ANSWER: abductor pollicis longus QUESTION: Treatments for mitral valve ___________ may include diuretics, slowing the heart rate, and managing atrial fibrillation.
16: ANSWER: foot abductor digiti minimi QUESTION: There are 2 sets of ________ muscles that control the mitral valve: lateral, and medial.
17: ANSWER: hand abductor digiti minimi QUESTION: The ________ tendinae attach the papillary muscles to the mitral valve.
18: ANSWER: abductor pollicis brevis QUESTION: In mitral regurgitation, cardiac output is sustained with left ventricular ___________.
19c: ANSWER: buccinator QUESTION:  The ____________ presses the cheek against molar teeth, thereby aiding chewing.  It expels air from oral cavity, as when a wind instrument is played.  It draws mouth to one side when acting unilaterally.  It is innervated by the facial nerve (CN VII).  It originates at the mandible, pterygomandibular raphe, and alveolar processes of maxilla and mandible, and inserts at the angle of the mouth.
20: ANSWER: bulbospongiosis QUESTION: Approximately 25% of all patients with rheumatic heart disease have pure mitral ________, and an additional 40% have this combined with mitral regurgitation.  It originates on the scleral spur, and inserts at the meridional, radial and circular fibers intrinsic to the ciliary body.
21c: ANSWER: ciliary QUESTION: The __________ relieves tension on the lens of the eye, allowing it to become more convex for near vision.  It is innervated by the parasympathetic fibers of the oculomotor nerve and ciliary ganglion.
22c: ANSWER: coracobrachialis QUESTION: The ________ helps to flex and adduct the arm.  It is innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C7).  It originates at the tip of the coracoid process of the scapula humerus, and inserts at the middle third of the medial surface of ?.
23c: ANSWER: cremaster QUESTION: The ______________ elevates the testis.  It is innervated by the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve (L1-L2).  It originates at the internal oblique muscle and inguinal ligament, and inserts at the spermatic ocrd and tunica vaginalis.
24c: ANSWER: deltoid QUESTION: The ________ has 3 parts.  The anterior part flexes and medially rotates the arm.  The middle part abducts the arm.  The posterior part extends and laterally rotates the arm.  It is innervated by the axillary nerve (C5, C6).  It originates in the lateral third of the clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula.  It inserts at the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus.
25c: ANSWER: diaphragm QUESTION: The __________ descends, decreasing intrathoracic pressure and thus resulting in inhalation and assisting return of venous blood to the heart.  It is innervated by the phrenic nerve (C3-C5).  It originates in the xiphoid process, inferior 6 costal cartilages and adjoining ribs, arcuate ligaments, anterior longitudinal ligaments, bodies, and discs of lumbar vertebrae 1-3.  It inserts at the central tendon of the diaphragm.
26c: ANSWER: digastric QUESTION: The ___________ depresses the mandible.  It raises the hyoid bone and steadies it during swallowing and speaking.  It has 2 branches.  Its anterior belly is is innervated by a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve. It originates at the digastric fossa of the mandibleand inserts at the intermediate tendon to the body. Its posterior belly is innervated by the facial nerve (CN VII).  It originates at the mastoid notch of the temporal bone, and inserts at the greater horn of the hyoid bone.
27: ANSWER: dorsal interossei of foot QUESTION: At heart rates greater than 150, diastolic filling times become so short that the tachycardia will produce a drop in _______ _________.
28: ANSWER: dorsal interossei of hand QUESTION: Stroke volume is affected by 3 factors: preload, postload, and _____________.
29: ANSWER: erector spinae QUESTION: Cardiac _________ must be carefully adjusted.   Too little, and the cardiac output will be low, leading to a low ejection fraction.  Too much, and the heart muscle will stretch, leading to cardiac failure.
30: ANSWER: external intercostal QUESTION: Signs of inadequate _________ include: poor skin turgor, dry mucous memebranes, low urine output, tachycardia, thirst, weak pulses, and flat neck veins.
31: ANSWER: external oblique QUESTION: Signs of excess ________ in a patient with adequate cardiac function include distended neck veins, crackles in the lungs, and bounding pulses.
32: ANSWER: fibularis brevis QUESTION: Increased _________ in a patient with poor cardiac function presents with crackles in the lungs, an S3 heart sound, low urine output, tachycardia, cold clammy skin with weak pulses, and edema.
33: ANSWER: fibularis longus QUESTION: Insufficient preload is commonly called hypovolemia or ____________.
34: ANSWER: fibularis tertius QUESTION: When insufficient volume is present in the vascular tree, the _________ nervous system is stimulated to release the catecholemines: epinephrine and norepinephrine.
35c: ANSWER: gastrocnemius QUESTION: The ___________ plantarflexes the ankle when the knee is extended.  It raises the heel during walking, and flexes the leg at the knee joint.  It is innervated by the tibial nerve (S1, S2).  It originates at 2 points.  On the lateral head, it orignates on the lateral aspect of the lateral condyle of the femur.  On the medial head, it originates on the popliteal surface of the femur superior to the medial condyle.  It inserts at the posterior surface of the calcaneus by the calcaneal tendon.
36c: ANSWER: gracilis QUESTION: The ___________ adducts the thigh.  It flexes the leg, and helps to rotate it medially.  It is innervated by the obturator nerve (L2, L3).  It orignates at the body and inferior ramus of the pubis.  It inserts at the superior part of the medial surface of the tibia.
37: ANSWER: gluteus maximus QUESTION: The most important determinant of afterload is vascular ____________.
38: ANSWER: gluteus medius QUESTION: Factors affecting afterload include vascular resistance, blood viscosity, valvular disease, and aortic ____________.
39: ANSWER: lateral pterygoid QUESTION: As arterial vessels _________, the afterload increases.
40: ANSWER: latissimus dorsi QUESTION: As arterial vessels __________, the afterload decreases.
41: ANSWER: levator scapulae QUESTION: ______ afterload increases myocardial work and decreases stroke volume.
42c: ANSWER: masseter QUESTION: The _______ elevates and protrudes the mandible thus closing the jaws.  Its deep fibers allow retrusion.  It is innervated by the mandibular nerve (CN V3) through the masseteric nerve, which enters its deep surface.  It initiates in the inferior border and medial surface of the zygomatic arch, and inserts in the lateral surface of the ramus of the mandible and its coronoid process.
43c: ANSWER: mentalis QUESTION: The _____________ elevates and protrudes the lower lip.  It is innervated by the facial nerve (CN VII).  It initiates in the incisive fossa of the mandible, and inserts in the skin of the chin.
44: ANSWER: medial rectus QUESTION: The _______ pressure is calculated by subtracting the diastolic blood pressure from the systolic blood pressure.
45: ANSWER: medial pterygoid QUESTION: The normal pulse pressure at the brachial artery is _____ mm Hg.
46: ANSWER: quadratus femoris QUESTION: Low afterload decreases cardiac _______ and increases stroke volume.
47: ANSWER: rectus abdominis QUESTION: Patients with _____ afterload present with symptoms of arterial dilation.
48c: ANSWER: risorius QUESTION: The ________ retracts the angle of the mouth, lengthening the rima oris.  It is innervated by facial nerve (CN VII).  It originates at the platysma and fascia of the masseter, and inserts at the orbicularis oris, the skin of the corner of the mouth, and the modiolus.
49c: ANSWER: soleus QUESTION: The _______ plantarflexes the ankle independently of the position of the knee and steadies the leg on the foot.  It is innervated by the tibial nerve (S1, S2).  It originates in the posterior aspect of the head of the fibula, superior fourth of the posterior surface of the fibula, and the soleal line and medial border of the tibia.  It inserts at the posterior surface of the calcaneus via the calcaneal tendon.
50c: ANSWER: subscapularis QUESTION:  The __________ rotates the arm medially and adducts it.  It helps to hold the humeral head in the glenoid cavity.  It is innervated by the upper and lower subscapular nerves (C5-C7).  It originates in the subscapular fossa, and inserts in the lesser tubercle of the humerus.
51c: ANSWER: cricopharyngeus QUESTION: The __________ serves as an upper esophageal sphincter.  It is innervated by the vagus nerve (CN X).  It originates at the posterolateral cricoid cartilage on one side, and inserts at the posterolateral cricoid cartilage of the other side.
52c: ANSWER: cricothyroid QUESTION: The _________ stretches and tenses the vocal fold.  It is innervated by the external laryngeal nerve.  It originates at the anterolateral part of the cricoid, and inserts at the inferior margin and inferior horn.
53c: ANSWER: hyoglossus QUESTION: The ____________ depresses and retracts the tongue.  It is innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII).  It originates at the body and greater horn of the hyoid bone, and inserts at the side and inferior aspect of the tongue.
54c: ANSWER: iliacus QUESTION: The ___________ flexes the thigh and stabilizes the hip joint, acting with the psoas major.  It is innervated by the femoral nerve (L2-L4). It originates at the iliac crest on the superior two thirds of the iliac fossa, at the ala of sacrum, and at the anterior scroiliac ligaments.  It inserts at the lesser trochanter of femur and shaft inferior to it, and inferior to the psoas major tendon.
55c: ANSWER: infraspinatus QUESTION: The _____________ laterally rotates the arm.  It helps to hold the humeral head in the glenoid cavity of the scapula.  It is innervated by the suprascapular nerve (C5, C6).  It originates on the infraspinous fossa of the scapula, and inserts at the middle facet on the greater tubercle of the humerus.
56c: ANSWER: interspinales QUESTION: The ___________ aids in the extension and rotation of the vertebral column.  It is innervated by the posterior rami of spinal nerves.  It originates in the superior surfaces of the spinous processes of cervical and lumbar vertebrae, and inserts at the interior surfaces of the spinous processes of the vertebrae superior to the vertebrae of origin.
57c: ANSWER: intertransversarii QUESTION: The ___________ aid in lateral bending of the vertebral column.  They act bilaterally, and stabilize the vertebral column.  They are innervated by the posterior and anterior rami of spinal nerves.  They initiate from the transverse processes of cervical and lumbar vertebrae, and insert into the transverse processes of adjacent vertebrae.
58c: ANSWER: ischiocavemosus QUESTION: The ___________ maintains the erection of the penis or clitoris by compressing outflow veins and pushing blood into the body of the penis or clitoris.  It is innervated by a deep branch of the perineal nerve, and a branch of the pudendal nerve (S2=S4).  It initiates in the internal surface of the ischiopubic ramus and ischial tuberosity, and inserts in the crus of the penis or clitoris.
59c: ANSWER: mylohyoid QUESTION: The __________ elevates the hyoid bone, the floor of the mouth, and the tongue during swallowing and speaking.  It is innervated by the mylohyoid nerve, a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve of the CN V3. It initiates in the mylohyoid line of the mandible, and inserts in the raphe and body of the hyoid bone.
60c: ANSWER: nasalis QUESTION: The ____________ draws the ala (sides) of the nose toward the nasal septum.  It is innervated by the facial nerve (CN VII).  It initiates in the superior part of the canine ridge of the maxilla, and inserts in the nasal cartilages.
61c: ANSWER: occipitofrontalis QUESTION: The ___________ has 2 bellies.  The occipital belly retracts and elevates the scalp.  It is innervated by the posterior branch of the facial nerve (CN VII), initiating on the lateral two thirds of the superior nuchal line and mastoid bone, and inserting into the epicranial aponeurosis.  The frontal belly elevates the eyebrows and the skin of the forehead.  It is innervated by the temporal branch of the facial nerve (CN VII).  It initiates in the epicranial aponeurosis, and inserts in the skin of the forehead and eyebrows.
62c: ANSWER: omohyoid QUESTION: The ______ depresses, retracts, and steadies the hyoid bone.  It is innervated by C1-C3 through a branch of the ansa cervicalis.  It initiates on the superior border of the scapula near the suprascapular notch, and inserts into the inferior border of the hyoid bone.
63c: ANSWER: palatoglossus QUESTION: The __________ elevates the posterior part of the tongue and draws the soft palate onto the tongue.  It is innervated by the cranial part of the accessory nerve (CN XI) through the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve (CN X) by way of the pharyngeal plexus.  It initiates in the palatine aponeurosis, and inserts into the side of the tongue.
64c: ANSWER: palatopharyngeus QUESTION: The ____________ tenses the soft palate and pulls the walls of the pharynx superiorly, anteriorly, and medially during swallowing.  It is innervated by the cranial part of the accessory nerve (CN XI) through the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve (CN X) by way of the pharyngeal plexus.  It initiates in the hard palate and palatine aponeurosis, and inserts in the lateral wall of the pharynx.
65c: ANSWER: pectineus QUESTION: The _______ adducts and flexes the thigh.  It assists with the medial rotation of the thigh.  It is innervated by the femoral nerve (L2,L3), and may receive a branch from the obturator nerve.  It initiates in the superior ramus of the pubis, and inserts in the pectineal line of the femur, just inferior to the lesser trochanter.
66c: ANSWER: piriformis QUESTION: The __________ laterally rotates the extended thigh and abducts the flexed thigh.  It steadies the femoral head in the acetabulum.  It is innervated by branches of the anterior rami of S1, S2.  It initiates in the anterior surface of the sacrum and sacrotuberous ligament, and inserts in the superior border of the greater trochanter of the femur.
67: ANSWER: plantar interossei 1-3 QUESTION: The _________ adducts the 2nd-4th digits and flexes the metatarsophalangeal joints.  It is innervated by the lateral plantar nerve (S2, S3).  It initiates in the bases and medial sides of the metatarsals 3rd-5th, and inserts in the medial sides of the bases of the proximal phalanges of the 3rd-5th digits.
68c: ANSWER: plantaris QUESTION: The __________ weakly assists the gastrocnemius in the plantarflexing of the ankle and in the flexing of the knee.  It is innervated by the tibial nerve (S1, S2).  It initiates in the inferior end of the lateral supracondylar line of the femur and in the oblique popliteal ligament.  It inserts into the posterior surface of the calcaneus through the calcaneal tendon.
69c: ANSWER: platysma QUESTION: The __________ depresses the mandible and tenses the skin of the lower face and neck.  It is innervated by the facial nerve (CN VII).  It initiates in the superficial fascia of the deltoid and pectoral regions, and inserts into the mandible, the skin of the cheek, the angle of the mouth, and the orbicularis oris.
70c: ANSWER: popliteus QUESTION: The __________ weakly flexes the knee and unlocks it. It is innervated by the tibial nerve (L4, L5, S1).  It initiates in the lateral surface of the lateral condyle of the femur, and lateral meniscus, and inserts in the posterior surface of the tibia, superior to the soleal line.
71c: ANSWER: procerus QUESTION: The _____________ depresses the medial end of the eyebrow.  It produces transverse wrinkles over the bridge of the nose, producing a look of concentration. It is innervated by the facial nerve (CN VII).  It initiates in the aponeurosis covering the bridge of the nose, and inserts into the skin of the lower foreead between the eyebrows.
72c: ANSWER: pyamidalis QUESTION: The __________ tenses the linea alba.  It is innervated by the subcostal nerve. It initates in the crest of the pubis, and inserts in the lower portion of the linea alba.
73c: ANSWER: sartorius QUESTION: The __________ flexes abducts, and laterally rotates the thigh at the hip joint.  It flexes the leg at the knee joint.  It is innervated by the femoral nerve (L2, L3).  It initiates in the anterior superior iliac spine and superior part of the notch inferior to it, and inserts into the superior part of the medial surface of the tibia.
74c: ANSWER: semimembranosus QUESTION: The _____________  extends the thigh, flexes the leg, and when the knee is flexed, rotates it medially.  When the hip is flexed and the knee is extended, it can raise the trunk against gravity.  It is innervated by the tibial division of the sciatic nerve (L5, S1, and S2).  It initiates in the ischial tuberosity, and inserts in the posterior part of the medial condyle of the tibia.  Its reflected attachment forms the oblique popliteal ligament to the lateral femoral condyle.
75c: ANSWER: semitendinosus QUESTION: The ____________ extends the thigh, flexes the leg, and when the knee is flexed, it rotates it medially.  When the hip is flexed and the knee is extended, it can raise the trunk against gravity.  It is innervated by the tibial division of the sciatic nerve (L5, S1, and S2).  It initiates in the ischial tuberosity, and inserts in the medial surface of the superior part of the tibia.
76c: ANSWER: stapedius QUESTION: The __________ damps vibrations of stapes reflexively in response to loud noise.  It is innervated by the facial nerve (CN VII).  It initiates in the internal walls of the pyramidal eminence of the posterior wall of the tympanic cavity.  It inserts at the neck of the stapes.
77c: ANSWER: sternocleidomaastoid QUESTION: The ____________ tilts the head to one side, i.e. laterally.  It flexes the neck and rotates it so the face is turned superiorly toward the opposite side; acting together, the right and left muscles flex the neck so that the chin is thrust forward.  It is innervated by the spinal root of the accessory nerve (CN XI) (motor_ and C2 and C3 nerves (pain and proprioception).  It initiates at the lateral surface of the mastoid process of the temporal bone and the lateral half of the superior nuchal line.  It inserts at two points:  on the sternal head, at the anterior surface of the manubrium of the sternum.  On the clavicular head, at the superior surface of the medial third of the clavicle.
78c: ANSWER: sternohyoid QUESTION: The __________ depresses the hyoid bone after it has been elevated during swallowing.  It is innervated by C1-C3 through a branch of the ansa cervicalis.  It initiates at the manubrium of the sternum, and the medial end of the clavicle.  It inserts at the body of the hyoid bone.
79c: ANSWER: sternothyroid QUESTION: The _________ depresses the hyoid bone and the larynx.  It is innervated by C2 and C3 through a branch of the ansa cervicalis.  It initiates at the posterior surface of the manubrium of the sternum, and inserts into the oblique line of the thyroid cartilage.
80c: ANSWER: styloglossus QUESTION: The ___________ retracts the tongue and draws it up to create a trough for swallowing.  It is innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII).  It initiates at the styloid process and stylohyoid ligament, and inserts in the side and inferior aspect of the tongue.
81c: ANSWER: stylohyoid QUESTION: The ___________ elevates and retracts the hyoid bone, thereby elongating the floor of the mouth.  It is innervated by a cervical branch of the facial nerve (CN VII).  It initiates at the styloid process of the temporal bone, and inserts in the body of the hyoid bone.
82c: ANSWER: stylopharyngeus QUESTION: The ____________ elevates (shortens and widens) the pharynx and larynx during swallowing and speaking.  It is innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX).  It initiates at the styloid process of the temporal bone, and inserts at the posterior and superior borders of the thyroid cartilage with the palatopharyngeus.
83c: ANSWER: subclavius QUESTION: The _____________ anchors and depresses the clavicle.  It is innervated by the nerve to the subclavius (C5, C6). It initiates at the junction of the 1st rib and its costal cartilage.  It inserts at the inferior surface of the middle third of the clavicle.
84c: ANSWER: subcostal QUESTION: The ________ elevates the ribs.  It is innervated by the intercostal nerves.  It initiates at the internal surfacs of the lower ribs near their angles, and inserts at the superior borders of the 2nd or 3rd ribs below.
85c: ANSWER: supinator QUESTION: The ___________ rotates the radius to turn the palm anteriorly.  It is innervated by a deep branch of the radial nerve (C5, C6).  It initiates at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, the radial collateral and anular ligaments, the supinator fossa, and the crest of the ulna.  It inserts at the lateral, posterior, and anterior surfaces of the proximal third of the radius.
86c: ANSWER: supraspinatus QUESTION: The _______________ initiates and asssists the deltoid in the abduction of the arm, and acts with rotator cuff muscles.  It is innervated by the suprascapular nerve (C4-C6).  It initiates at the supraspinous fossa of the scapula, and inserts on the superior facet of the greater tubercle of the humerus.
87c: ANSWER: temporalis QUESTION: The _______________ elevates the mandible, closing the jaws; its posterior fibers retract the mandible after protrusion.  It is innervated by the deep temporal branches of the mandibular nerve (CN V3).  It initiates at the floor of the temporal fossa and the deep surface of the temporal fascia.  It inserts in the tip and medial surface of the coronoid process and the anterior border of the ramus of the mandible.
88c: ANSWER: thyroarytenoid QUESTION: The ____________ relaxes the vocal fold.  It is innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve.  It initiates in the posterior surface of the thyroid cartilage, and inserts in the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage.
89c: ANSWER: thyrohyoid QUESTION: The _________ depresses the hyoid bone and elevates the larynx.  It is innervated by the hypoglossal nerve through C1.  It initiates at the oblique line of thyroid cartilage, and inserts at the inferior border of the body and greater horn of the hyoid bone.
90c: ANSWER: transversospinalis QUESTION: The _______ extends the head and thoracic and cervical regions of the vertebral column and rotates them contralaterally.  It stabilizes the vertebrae during local movements of the vertebral column, and stibilizes the vertebrae assisting with local extension and rotary movements of the vertebral column.  It may function as organs of proprioception.  It is innervated by the posterior rami of the spinal nerves.  It has 3 transverse processes: the semispinalis arises from the transverse process of the C4-T12 vertebrae and inserts through spinous processes in the thoracis, cervicis, and catpitis, its fibers running superomedially to the occipital bone and spinous processes in thoracic and cervical regions – spanning 4-6 segments.  The multifidus arises from the sacrum and ilium, the transverse processes of T1-T3, and the articular process of C4-C7. Its fibers pass superomedially to spinous processes of vertebrae above, spanning 2-4 segments.  The rotatores arise from transverse processes of the vertebrae, and are most highly developed in the thoracic region.  They pass superomedially to attach to the junction of the lamina and transverse process or spinous process, of vertebra above their origin, spanning 1-2 segments.
91c: ANSWER: trapezius QUESTION: The  ________ elevates, retracts, and rotates the scapula.  Its superior fibers elevate, its middle fibers retract, and its inferior fibers depress the scapula.  The superior and inferior fibers act together in the superior rotation of the scapula.  It is innervated by the spinal root of the accessory nerve (CN XI) (motor_ and cervical nerves (C3, C4) (pain and proprioception). It originates in the medial third of the superior nuchal line, and the external occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament, and spinous processes of the C7 to T12 vertebrae.  It inserts into the lateral third of the clavicle, acromion, and spine of the scapula.
92c: ANSWER: vocalis QUESTION: The _______ relaxes the posterior vocal ligament while maintaining (or increasing) tension of the anterior part.  It is innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve (a branch of the vagus (CN X)).  It initiates in the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage, and inserts into the vocal ligaments.
93c: ANSWER: gemelli QUESTION: The ___________ are two muscles (a superior and an inferior).  They laterally rotate the extended thigh and abduct the flexed thigh, keeping the femoral head steady in the acetabulum.  The superior gemellus is innervated by the nerve to the obturator internus (L5, S1).  The muscle initiates at the ischial spine.  The inferior muscle is innervated by the nerve to the quadratus femoris (L5, S1).  The inferior muscle initiates in the ischial tuberosity.  Both muscles insert at the medial surface of the greater trochanter (trochanteric fossa) of the femur.
94c: ANSWER: genioglossus QUESTION:  The ________ depresses the tongue.  The posterior part pulls the tongue anteriorly for protrusion.  It is innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII).  It initiates in the superior part of the mental spine of the mandible, and inserts in the dorsum of the tongue and body of the hyoid bone.
95c: ANSWER: geniohyoid QUESTION: The _________ pulls the hyoid bone anterosuperiorly.  It shortens the floor of the mouth and widens the pharynx.  It is innervated by C1 through the hypoglossal nerve.  It initiates in the inferior mental spine of the mandible, and inserts in the body of the hyoid bone.
——————————————————————————————————–

———————————————————————————————————

Advertisements
This entry was posted in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s